Type 1 diabetes

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Type 1 diabetes is due to some failure of the β cells of pancreatic islets to produce insulin, presumably due to some autoimmune destruction. As a result, cells with insulin receptors are unable to commence various energy cycles that utilize glucose, making victims/patients less than bouncy. Because the problem hinges around cells that use insulin receptors, Type 1 diabetes mainly affects muscle, fat and liver cells, while sparing nerves, glomerular and eye-lens cells, which are not dependent on insulin receptors.

See Glucagon.

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