Difference between revisions of "Pelvic reproductive structures"

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== Development ==
 
== Development ==
 
*state the origin of the cells that contribute to the formation of the genital ridges
 
*state the origin of the cells that contribute to the formation of the genital ridges
 
 
 
 
*name the factors that influence whether a male of female reproductive tract will be formed
 
*name the factors that influence whether a male of female reproductive tract will be formed
 
 
 
 
*describe the formation and name the components of the "indifferent" gonad, genital ducts and external genitalia
 
*describe the formation and name the components of the "indifferent" gonad, genital ducts and external genitalia
 
 
 
 
*outline the changes that occur following the "indifferent" stages of development which lead to the formation of the definitive male and female gonads, reproductive tracts and external genitalia
 
*outline the changes that occur following the "indifferent" stages of development which lead to the formation of the definitive male and female gonads, reproductive tracts and external genitalia
 
 
 
 
*describe the descent of the testis into the scrotum and explain what prevents ovary from descending to the same extent
 
*describe the descent of the testis into the scrotum and explain what prevents ovary from descending to the same extent
 
 
 
 
*explain the following in terms of abnormal development of the reproductive tract - bicornuate uterus, imperforate hymen, congenital indirect hernia, hypospadias
 
*explain the following in terms of abnormal development of the reproductive tract - bicornuate uterus, imperforate hymen, congenital indirect hernia, hypospadias
  
 
== Female ==
 
== Female ==
 
[[Image:Image1166.gif|thumb|250px|Sagittal section of the lower part of a female trunk, right segment.]]
 
[[Image:Image1166.gif|thumb|250px|Sagittal section of the lower part of a female trunk, right segment.]]
 +
 
=== Objectives ===
 
=== Objectives ===
 
*describe the structure, general function and location of the [[uterus]], [[uterine tube]]s, [[ovaries]] and [[vagina]]
 
*describe the structure, general function and location of the [[uterus]], [[uterine tube]]s, [[ovaries]] and [[vagina]]
 
*state the changes that occur in the position and size of the [[uterus]] during the life cycle and during pregnancy
 
*state the changes that occur in the position and size of the [[uterus]] during the life cycle and during pregnancy
 
*name the structures that support and stabilize the [[uterus]] and [[vagina]]
 
*name the structures that support and stabilize the [[uterus]] and [[vagina]]
*define the term "broad ligament" and name its parts and contents
+
*define the term [[broad ligament]] and name its parts and contents
 
*outline the arterial supply, venous and lymphatic drainage and innervation of the reproductive organs
 
*outline the arterial supply, venous and lymphatic drainage and innervation of the reproductive organs
 
=== Broad ligament ===
 
*A sheet of visceral peritoneum which drapes over the [[uterus]] and [[uterine tube]]s
 
*Laterally, it is continuous with the peritoneum of the lateral pelvic wall
 
*The [[ovary]] is not covered by peritoneum, but is attached to the posterior surface of the broad ligament by a peritoneal sleeve, called the '''mesovarium''', which conveys the ovarian blood vessels and lymphatics
 
*The ovarian vessels form a fold in the lateral part of the broad ligament known as the '''suspensory ligament''' of the [[ovary]]
 
*The '''round ligament''' (of the [[uterus]]) and (round) ligament of the [[ovary]] are also contained within the broad ligament
 
*The part of the broad ligament between the mesovarium and [[uterine tube]] is sometimes referred to as the mesosalpinx and that immediately lateral to the [[uterus]] is known as the '''mesometrium'''
 
  
 
=== Vessels ===
 
=== Vessels ===
 
==== Arteries ====
 
==== Arteries ====
*form an anastomosing network derived mainly from the ovarian and uterine arteries
+
The arteries form an anastomosing network derived mainly from the [[ovarian artery|ovarian]] and [[uterine artery|uterine]] arteries.
*Each ovarian artery arises from the abdominal aorta and enters the broad ligament through the suspensory ligament
+
Each [[ovarian artery]] arises from the [[abdominal aorta]] and enters the [[broad ligament]] through the suspensory ligament, where it supplies the [[ovary]] via the ''mesovarium''.
*It supplies the [[ovary]] via the ''mesovarium''
+
Also, something something [[vaginal artery]].
 
 
*'''Uterine artery'''
 
**leaves the internal iliac artery
 
**runs deep to the peritoneum at the base of the broad ligament, to the lateral wall of the [[uterus]]
 
**Divides into a descending, vaginal branch, to the [[cervix]] and [[vagina]], and a larger, ascending, uterine branch, which passes along the body of the [[uterus]] and [[uterine tube]], giving branches to both, before anastomosing with terminal branches of the ovarian artery
 
 
 
*'''Vaginal artery'''
 
**A separate branch of the internal iliac artery
 
**may also supply the lower [[cervix]] and [[vagina]]
 
  
 
==== Veins ====
 
==== Veins ====
*most form anastomosing plexuses along the walls of the [[uterine tube]]s, [[uterus]] and [[vagina]]
+
Most veins form anastomosing plexuses along the walls of the [[uterine tube]]s, [[uterus]] and [[vagina]].
*The plexuses drain into veins that enter either the internal iliac vein (''e.g.'', uterine veins) or the inferior vena cava (''e.g.'', ovarian veins)
+
The plexuses drain into veins that enter either the internal iliac vein (''e.g.'', uterine veins) or the [[inferior vena cava]] (''e.g.'', ovarian veins).
  
 
=== Lymphatics ===
 
=== Lymphatics ===
*For the most part, they accompany blood vessels
+
For the most part, the lymphatics accompany blood vessels.
*Those receiving lymph from the [[ovaries]], [[uterine tube]]s, fundus and upper part of the body of the [[uterus]] drain to para-aortic (lumbar) nodes (accompanying the ovarian vessels)
+
Those receiving lymph from the [[ovaries]], [[uterine tube]]s, fundus and upper part of the body of the [[uterus]] drain to para-aortic (lumbar) nodes (accompanying the ovarian vessels).
*Lymphatics from the rest of the body of the [[uterus]], [[cervix]] and upper [[vagina]] drain mainly to internal and external iliac nodes and to sacral nodes
+
Lymphatics from the rest of the body of the [[uterus]], [[cervix]] and upper [[vagina]] drain mainly to internal and external iliac nodes and to sacral nodes
*In addition, some lymphatics from the [[uterus]] may travel with the round ligament, through the inguinal canal, to superficial inguinal nodes
+
In addition, some lymphatics from the [[uterus]] may travel with the round ligament, through the [[inguinal canal]], to superficial inguinal nodes.
*Lymphatics from the lower part of the [[vagina]] drain to superficial inguinal nodes along with lymphatics from other parts of the vulva.
+
Lymphatics from the lower part of the [[vagina]] drain to superficial inguinal nodes along with lymphatics from other parts of the [[vulva]].
  
 
=== Innervation ===
 
=== Innervation ===
*mainly autonomic, via the hypogastric plexus
+
Innervation is mainly autonomic, via the hypogastric plexus.
*The motor nerves to the uterus appear to be mainly vasomotor (the denervated uterus is still capable of contraction), while those to the vagina control contraction of the smooth muscle in its walls. The afferent nerves from the uterus, uterine tubes and upper vagina travel mainly with sympathetic nerves via the hypogastric plexus, while some also pass to the sacral spinal cord via the pelvic splanchnic nerves. The somatic innervation of the lower part of the vagina is via the pudendal nerve.
+
The motor nerves to the [[uterus]] appear to be mainly vasomotor (the denervated uterus is still capable of contraction), while those to the [[vagina]] control contraction of the smooth muscle in its walls.
 +
The afferent nerves from the uterus, [[uterine tubes]] and upper vagina travel mainly with sympathetic nerves via the hypogastric plexus, while some also pass to the sacral spinal cord via the pelvic splanchnic nerves.
 +
The somatic innervation of the lower part of the vagina is via the [[pudendal nerve]].
  
  

Revision as of 20:42, 19 May 2004

Development

  • state the origin of the cells that contribute to the formation of the genital ridges
  • name the factors that influence whether a male of female reproductive tract will be formed
  • describe the formation and name the components of the "indifferent" gonad, genital ducts and external genitalia
  • outline the changes that occur following the "indifferent" stages of development which lead to the formation of the definitive male and female gonads, reproductive tracts and external genitalia
  • describe the descent of the testis into the scrotum and explain what prevents ovary from descending to the same extent
  • explain the following in terms of abnormal development of the reproductive tract - bicornuate uterus, imperforate hymen, congenital indirect hernia, hypospadias

Female

Sagittal section of the lower part of a female trunk, right segment.

Objectives

  • describe the structure, general function and location of the uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries and vagina
  • state the changes that occur in the position and size of the uterus during the life cycle and during pregnancy
  • name the structures that support and stabilize the uterus and vagina
  • define the term broad ligament and name its parts and contents
  • outline the arterial supply, venous and lymphatic drainage and innervation of the reproductive organs

Vessels

Arteries

The arteries form an anastomosing network derived mainly from the ovarian and uterine arteries. Each ovarian artery arises from the abdominal aorta and enters the broad ligament through the suspensory ligament, where it supplies the ovary via the mesovarium. Also, something something vaginal artery.

Veins

Most veins form anastomosing plexuses along the walls of the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina. The plexuses drain into veins that enter either the internal iliac vein (e.g., uterine veins) or the inferior vena cava (e.g., ovarian veins).

Lymphatics

For the most part, the lymphatics accompany blood vessels. Those receiving lymph from the ovaries, uterine tubes, fundus and upper part of the body of the uterus drain to para-aortic (lumbar) nodes (accompanying the ovarian vessels). Lymphatics from the rest of the body of the uterus, cervix and upper vagina drain mainly to internal and external iliac nodes and to sacral nodes In addition, some lymphatics from the uterus may travel with the round ligament, through the inguinal canal, to superficial inguinal nodes. Lymphatics from the lower part of the vagina drain to superficial inguinal nodes along with lymphatics from other parts of the vulva.

Innervation

Innervation is mainly autonomic, via the hypogastric plexus. The motor nerves to the uterus appear to be mainly vasomotor (the denervated uterus is still capable of contraction), while those to the vagina control contraction of the smooth muscle in its walls. The afferent nerves from the uterus, uterine tubes and upper vagina travel mainly with sympathetic nerves via the hypogastric plexus, while some also pass to the sacral spinal cord via the pelvic splanchnic nerves. The somatic innervation of the lower part of the vagina is via the pudendal nerve.


Development

Histology

  • list the main features of the cortex and medulla of the ovary
  • list the steps involved in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles
  • prepare a labeled diagram of a Graafian follicle
  • describe the process of ovulation and fertilization
  • describe the derivation, structure and function of the corpus luteum
  • distinguish between an atretic follicle and a corpus albicans
  • describe the main histological features and functions of the oviduct
  • list the main features of the cortex and medulla of the ovary


  • list the steps involved in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles
  • prepare a labeled diagram of a Graafian follicle
  • describe the process of ovulation and fertilization
  • describe the derivation, structure and function of the corpus luteum
  • distinguish between an atretic follicle and a corpus albicans
  • describe the main histological features and functions of the oviduct

Male

Basics

Lymphatics

Vessels

Arteries

  • branches from the internal iliac artery, particularly the inferior vesical artery, supply the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and vas deferens
  • As the testes descend from the abdomen, they drag their blood supply with them
  • Hence, each testicular artery arises from the abdominal aorta, and passes through the inguinal canal, to become part of the spermatic cord
  • The penis receives its main blood supply from the internal pudendal branch of the internal iliac artery

Veins

  • those draining the prostate gland form a prostatic plexus which lies within the prostatic sheath
  • The plexus receives the deep dorsal vein of the penis (drains the erectile tissue), before emptying into the internal iliac vein, via the vesical venous plexus and inferior vesical veins
  • The veins of the seminal vesicles and pelvic part of the vas deferens drain directly into the vesical venous plexus
  • The veins draining the testis form a plexus (pampiniform plexus) in the spermatic cord
  • A single testicular vein emerges from the plexus which accompanies the testicular artery, and empties into the inferior vena cava (the left one draining via the left renal vein)

Innervation

Histology

Objectives

  • describe the general organization of a seminiferous tubule.
  • define the terms spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.
  • explain the relationship between spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids.
  • describe the structure and role of Sertoli cells.
  • list steps involved in spermiogenesis.
  • explain the location and function of Leydig cell.
  • compare the histological features of efferent tubules, epididmys and vas deferens.
  • describe the general histology of the prostate gland.
  • explain the structures involved in penile erection.


  • describe the general organization of a seminiferous tubule.
  • The testis is enclosed by a dense connective tissue capsule (Tunica albuginea) and contains 250-300 lobules with one to four seminiferous tubules each
  • define the terms spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.
  • explain the relationship between spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids.
  • describe the structure and role of Sertoli cells.
  • list steps involved in spermiogenesis.
  • explain the location and function of Leydig cell.
  • compare the histological features of efferent tubules, epididmys and vas deferens.
  • explain the structures involved in penile erection.

Development

Resources