IKE:Upload log

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Below is a list of the most recent file uploads. All times shown are server time (UTC).

  • 12:54, 8 May 2005 Tarek uploaded "Dual_Neuron.jpg" (Dual Neurons)
  • 15:15, 30 Apr 2005 Tarek uploaded "Half-orangebox.png" (Half orange-box)
  • 15:15, 30 Apr 2005 Tarek uploaded "Half-greybox.png" (Half Grey-box)
  • 15:07, 30 Apr 2005 Tarek uploaded "Greybox.png" (Grey Box)
  • 15:06, 30 Apr 2005 Tarek uploaded "Orangebox.png" (Orange Box)
  • 01:55, 11 Nov 2004 Tarek uploaded "Old_man.jpg" (An old man)
  • 20:24, 9 Nov 2004 Tarek uploaded "Giardia_protozoa.jpg" (The Giardia Protozoa is responsible for causing giardiasis, a diarrheal illness. Giardia is a one-celled, microscopic parasitic protist that lives in the intestine of people and animals. SEM X11,975 Source: [http://creative.gettyimages.com/source/search/ImageDetail.aspx?s=ImagesSearchState|3|5|0|15|2|1|0|0|1|60|2ed3.d7c5.03ff.e000.002f.0ef0|1|0|%22diarrhea%22||1|0&pk=5&assetIndex=6&licenseModel=2&cdpc=])
  • 06:02, 9 Nov 2004 Tarek uploaded "Hiv.jpg" ([[HIV]] molecule)
  • 18:46, 1 Nov 2004 Tarek uploaded "H_pylori.jpg" ([[Helicobacter pylori]] bug. Source: [http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hpylori/images/hpylori1.jpg])
  • 14:18, 21 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "Woman.jpg" (Picture of a woman. Source: [http://www.gettyimages.com Getty Images])
  • 13:58, 14 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "Arrhythmia_reentry.gif" (Diagram demonstrating reentry arrhythmia. Source: http://www.cvphysiology.com/Arrhythmias/A008c.htm)
  • 20:24, 10 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "Brain_image.jpg" (Image of a man's brain. Source: Getty Images)
  • 15:21, 8 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "ST_elevation.jpg" (ST elevation reading on an [[electrocardiogram]]. Source: [http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/EKG/stelelvation.html])
  • 14:28, 8 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "CVS_Axis.gif" (CVS Axis. Taken from [http://medicine.ucsf.edu/housestaff/ecg/axis.html Tom Evans' ECG Cribsheet])
  • 21:43, 3 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "Newborn_baby.jpg" (Newborn baby boy wrapped in blanket. Source: [http://creative.gettyimages.com/source/search/ImageEnlarge.aspx?MasterID=200026493-001])
  • 12:40, 1 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "Atherosclerotic_aortas.jpg" (These three aortas demonstrate mild, moderate, and severe atherosclerosis from bottom to top. At the bottom, the mild atherosclerosis shows only scattered lipid plaques. The aorta in the middle shows many more larger plaques. The severe atherosclerosis in the aorta at the top shows extensive ulceration in the plaques.)
  • 02:23, 1 Oct 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cholinergic_transmission.gif"
  • 17:29, 30 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Blindfolded_man_smoking.jpg" (A blind-folded man smoking (Getty Images))
  • 14:36, 30 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "ECG_chest_electrode_placement.gif" (Placement of the six leads on the chest in an [[ECG]]. Source: [http://butler.cc.tut.fi/~malmivuo/bem/bembook/15/15.htm])
  • 14:07, 30 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Ecg_-_limb_lead_placement.gif" (The standard limb leads of an [[ECG]]. Source: [http://medstat.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/ecg_outline/Lesson1/lead_dia.html])
  • 15:24, 27 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Twins-portrait.jpg"
  • 14:37, 24 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Forceps_delivery.jpg" (http://www.obgyn.uic.edu/holt/holt.htm)
  • 03:15, 21 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Schematic_of_pharmacokinetic_factors.gif"
  • 13:54, 20 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1172.gif" (Dissection of the lower half of the mamma during the period of lactation. (Luschka.))
  • 12:59, 20 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Breast_mammogram_-_carcinoma.jpg"
  • 12:52, 20 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Breast_X-Ray_-_Lesion.jpg" (Breast X-Ray)
  • 22:24, 18 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Vulvar_Carcinoma.jpg"
  • 22:19, 18 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Vulvar_carcinoma_in_situ.jpg"
  • 12:34, 13 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Ectopic_Pregnancy_1.jpg" (An ectopic pregnancy)
  • 12:27, 13 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "3d-ultrasound-22weeks.jpg" (3D Ultrasound of a baby at 22 weeks)
  • 03:57, 7 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Y2_Pharmacology_Intro.pdf" (Introduction to Pharmacology lecture notes (PDF))
  • 03:53, 7 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Y2_Pharmacology_Intro.pdf" (Introduction to Pharmacology lecture notes (PDF))
  • 03:49, 7 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Y2_Pharmacology_Anti-infective_Agents.pdf" (Pharmacology - Anti-infective Agents lecture notes (PDF))
  • 03:49, 7 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Y2_Pharmacology_Anti-infective_Agents_-_Sample_Questions.pdf" (Pharmacology - Anti-infective_Agents - Sample Questions (PDF))
  • 03:47, 7 Sep 2004 Tarek uploaded "Y2_Pharmacology_-_Drug_Metabolism.pdf" (Drug Metabolism Lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:23, 28 Jul 2004 Tarek uploaded "EKG_complex.png" (A schematic of the EKG complex with labels.)
  • 03:35, 19 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image534.gif" (The superior mesenteric artery and its branches. Source: [http://www.bartleby.com/107/ Gray's Anatomy]: [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus534.html])
  • 03:20, 19 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1056.gif" (The duodenum and pancreas. Source: [http://www.bartleby.com/107/ Gray's Anatomy]: [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1056.html])
  • 20:58, 18 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1049.gif" (Diagram showing shape and position of distended stomach. Erect posture. (Hertz.) Source: [http://www.bartleby.com/107 Gray's Anatomy] [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1049.html])
  • 20:18, 18 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image591.gif" (The portal vein and its tributaries. Source: [http://www.bartleby.com/107 Gray's Anatomy] [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus591.html])
  • 20:05, 18 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image532.gif" (The celiac artery and its branches; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed. Source: [http://www.bartleby.com/107 Gray's Anatomy] [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus532.html])
  • 13:34, 17 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1181.gif" (Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic. (Herring.) Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1181.html])
  • 13:31, 11 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-05-11_Insulin_Resistance_-_Dr_Hramiak.pdf" (Lecture notes for Insulin resistance (PDF))
  • 15:27, 3 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image585.gif" (The veins of the right half of the male pelvis. (Spalteholz). Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus585.html])
  • 14:49, 3 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image406.gif" (Muscles of the male perineum. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus406.html])
  • 14:46, 3 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image408.gif" (Muscles of the female perineum. (Modified from a drawing by Peter Thompson.) Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus408.html])
  • 14:22, 3 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image405.gif" (The perineum. The integument and superficial layer of superficial fascia reflected. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus405.html])
  • 14:07, 3 May 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-05-03_Physiology_Of_Reproduction_-_Dr_Power.ppt" (Physiology of reproduction)
  • 19:53, 27 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "LABNotesGI&GU03DrJohnson.pdf" (Lab instructions for gastrointestinal and genital-urinary systems (PDF))
  • 02:06, 27 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1154.gif" (The constituent cavernous cylinders of the penis. The glans and anterior part of the corpus cavernosum urethræ are detached from the corpora cavernosa penis and turned to one side. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1154.html])
  • 00:49, 27 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1120.gif" (The relations of the viscera and large vessels of the abdomen. (Seen from behind, the last thoracic vertebra being well raised.) Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1120.html])
  • 15:38, 26 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-26_Male_and_Female_Sexual_Response_-_Dr_Watson.pdf" (Male and Female Sexual Response lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:39, 26 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1158.gif" (Diagram of the arteries of the penis. (Testut.) Source: Gray's Anatomy: [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1158.html])
  • 02:25, 25 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-29_Fluid_&_Electrolyte_-_Dr_Howard.ppt" (Fluid and electrolyte transport lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:26, 22 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-22_Physiology_of_Puberty_-_Dr_Watson.pdf" (Physiology of puberty lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:22, 20 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-20_Physiology_of_Reproduction_-_Dr_Watson.pdf" (Physiology of reproduction (PDF))
  • 14:21, 20 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-20_Gametes,_Fertilization,_Early_Embryo_Development_-_Dr_Watson.pdf" (Gametes, Fertilization, Early Embryo Development)
  • 13:16, 20 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1163.gif" (Section of the ovary. (After Schrön.) 1. Outer covering. 1’. Attached border. 2. Central stroma. 3. Peripheral stroma. 4. Bloodvessels. 5. Vesicular follicles in their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature follicle. 9’. Follicle from which the ovum has escaped. 10. Corpus luteum. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1163.html])
  • 12:50, 20 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Prostate_concretions_20x.jpg" (Prostate concretions Source: http://www.cvm.okstate.edu/instruction/mm_curr/histology/MR/HiMRP6.htm)
  • 12:49, 20 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Seminiferous_tubule.jpg" (Seminiferous tubule Source: )
  • 12:28, 20 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "MaleReproDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the male reproductive system slides (PPT))
  • 22:33, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1156.gif" (Vertical section of bladder, penis, and urethra. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1156.html])
  • 22:27, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1148.gif" (The right testis, exposed by laying open the tunica vaginalis. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1148.html])
  • 22:21, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1144.gif" (The scrotum. The penis has been turned upward, and the anterior wall of the scrotum has been removed. On the right side, the spermatic cord, the infundibuliform fascia, and the Cremaster muscle are displayed; on the left side, the infundibuliform fascia has been divided by a longitudinal incision passing along the front of the cord and the testicle, and a portion of the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis has been removed to display the testicle and a portion of the head of the epididymis, which are covered by the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. (Toldt.) Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1144.html])
  • 14:51, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1165.gif" (Female pelvis and its contents, seen from above and in front. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1161.html])
  • 14:25, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1161.gif" (Uterus and right broad ligament, seen from behind. The broad ligament has been spread out and the ovary drawn downward. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1161.html])
  • 14:19, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1171.gif" (External genital organs of female. The labia minora have been drawn apart. Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1171.html])
  • 14:14, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1166.gif" (Sagittal section of the lower part of a female trunk, right segment. SM. INT. Small intestine. (Testut.) Source: Gray's Anatomy [http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1166.html])
  • 05:28, 19 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-26_Functional_Sexual_Anatomy_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Functional Sexual Anatomy lecture slides (PDF))
  • 21:07, 18 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-08_UTI_notes.pdf" (Urinary Tract Infection lecture notes (PDF))
  • 13:56, 13 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image824.gif" (Deep and superficial dissection of the lumbar plexus. (Testut.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus824.html ))
  • 13:39, 13 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-12_Nerves_And_Vessels_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Nerves and vessels of the pelvis lecture slides (PDF))
  • 00:34, 13 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-12_Pelvis_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Pelvis lecture notes - Dr Johnson (PDF))
  • 00:33, 13 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Pelvis&ReproNotesDrJohnson.pdf" (Pelvis and Reproduction Notes - Dr Johnson (PDF))
  • 14:56, 12 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image404.gif" (Left Levator ani from within. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus404.html ))
  • 14:48, 12 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image402.gif" (Coronal section of pelvis, showing arrangement of fasciæ. Viewed from behind. (Diagrammatic.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus319.html ))
  • 14:41, 12 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image319.gif" (Articulations of pelvis. Anterior view. (Quain.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus319.html ))
  • 14:15, 12 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image241.gif" (Male Pelvis. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus241.html ))
  • 21:36, 11 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1188.gif" (The visceral surface of the spleen. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1188.html ))
  • 21:02, 11 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1095.gif" (The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. (Spalteholz.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1095.html ))
  • 21:01, 11 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1098.gif" (The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. (Spalteholz.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1095.html ))
  • 20:50, 11 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1092.gif" (A single lobule of the liver of a pig. X 60. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1086.html ))
  • 20:47, 11 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1086.gif" (Inferior surface of the liver. (From model by His.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1086.html ))
  • 12:40, 6 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-04-06_Renal_Physiology_-_Dr_Wilson.ppt" (Filtration, Reabsorption & Secretion Lecture slides (PPT))
  • 13:42, 5 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1128.gif" (Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1128.html ))
  • 13:36, 5 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1127.gif" (Vertical section of kidney. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1127.html ))
  • 14:19, 1 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "Q4Biochemistry2004DrFlanagan.pdf" (Quarter 4 biochemistry notes (PDF))
  • 13:28, 1 Apr 2004 Tarek uploaded "04-01-2004_Normal_Microbioal_Flora_Of_The_Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Dr_Lannigan.pdf" (Normal Microbioal Flora Of The Gastrointestinal Tract lecture notes by Dr Lannigan (PDF))
  • 21:45, 30 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1219.gif" (Surface anatomy of the front of the thorax and abdomen.)
  • 21:29, 30 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Abdomen&posteriorwallnotesDr.Johnson.pdf" (Abdomen lecture notes (PDF))
  • 15:28, 30 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image534.gif" (The superior mesenteric artery and its branches.)
  • 15:11, 30 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-30_Mesenteric_Vessels_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Mesenteric Vessels lecture slides (PDF))
  • 13:30, 30 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-30_Liver_Jaundice_-_Dr_Levstik.pdf" (Liver physiology and jaundice (PDF))
  • 15:19, 29 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1047.gif" (Diagram showing shape and position of empty stomach. Erect posture. (Hertz.))
  • 13:42, 29 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-29_Stomach_Liver_Spleen_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Anatomy of the Stomach, Liver and Spleen Lecture slides)
  • 04:27, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Esophagus_stomach_division.png" (Esophagus/Stomach division)
  • 04:07, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Organization_of_the_GI_tract.png" (Organization of the GI tract)
  • 03:54, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1050.gif" (Interior of the stomach.)
  • 03:22, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyUrinaryPassagesDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Urinary Passage Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:21, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyPituitaryDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Pituitary Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:21, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyMaleReproDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Male Reproductive System Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:20, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyLiverPancreasDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Liver and Pancreas Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:20, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyKidneyDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Kidney Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:16, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyIntestineDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Intestines Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:15, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyFemaleReproDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Female Reproducctive System Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:14, 28 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HistologyEsophagusStomachDrSandig.ppt" (Histology of the Esophagus Lecture (PPT))
  • 00:17, 27 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Derivatives_of_primitive_gut_tube.xcf" (GI Development - Derivatives of primitive gut tube For original [http://www.gimp.org GIMP] file, see [[:Media:GI_Development_-_embryonic_folding.xcf]] Derived from diagrams on P2 of [[:Media:2004-03-23_Powerpoint_Diagrams_GI_development_-_Dr_Haase.pdf]])
  • 00:15, 27 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Derivatives_of_primitive_gut_tube.png" (GI Development - Derivatives of primitive gut tube For original [http://www.gimp.org GIMP] file, see [[:Media:GI_Development_-_embryonic_folding.xcf]] Derived from diagrams on P2 of [[:Media:2004-03-23_Powerpoint_Diagrams_GI_development_-_Dr_Haase.pdf]])
  • 22:44, 26 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "GI_Development_-_embryonic_folding.xcf" (GI Development - Longitudinal folding (GIMP Original))
  • 22:43, 26 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "GI_Development_-_embryonic_folding.png" (GI Development - Longitudinal folding)
  • 21:57, 26 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-23_Powerpoint_Diagrams_GI_development_-_Dr_Haase.pdf" (Diagrams for development Of GI system lecture notes (PDF))
  • 21:57, 26 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-23_Development_Of_GI_system_-_Dr_Haase.pdf" (Development Of GI system lecture notes (PDF))
  • 17:15, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Impact_of_Transplant-related_stressors.pdf" (Impact of Transplant-related stressors and feelings of indebtedness on Psychological adjustment following kidney transplantation)
  • 03:27, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1146.gif" (The spermatic cord in the inguinal canal. (Poirier and Charpy.) Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus1146.html ))
  • 03:15, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Hernia_sites.png" (3 major hernia sites)
  • 03:01, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image401.gif" (The abdominal inguinal ring. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus401.html ))
  • 02:35, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image397.gif" (The Transversus abdominis, Rectus abdominis, and Pyramidalis. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus397.html ))
  • 02:29, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image396.gif" (The Cremaster. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus395.html ))
  • 02:27, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image395.gif" (The Obliquus internus abdominis. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus395.html ))
  • 01:53, 24 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image392.gif" (The Obliquus externus abdominis. Source: Gray's Anatomy ( http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus392.html ))
  • 14:40, 23 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1035.gif" (Vertical disposition of the peritoneum. Main cavity, red; omental bursa, blue.)
  • 14:36, 23 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1034.gif" (Front view of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. a. Median plane. b b. Lateral planes. c c. Trans tubercular plane. d d. Subcostal plane. e e. Transpyloric plane.)
  • 14:28, 23 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-23_Abdominal_Cavity_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Abdominal cavity lecture notes (PDF))
  • 13:27, 23 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-23_Motor_Activity_Of_The_GI_tract_-_Dr_Reynolds.pdf" (Motor Activity Of The GI tract (PDF))
  • 14:15, 22 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "2004-03-22_Anterior_Abdominal_Wall_-_Dr_Johnson.pdf" (Anterior Abdominal Wall lecture notes (pdf))
  • 13:47, 11 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-5.16.gif" (Janeway Figure 5.16. T-cell recognition of antigens is MHC restricted. The antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes a complex of antigenic peptide and MHC. One consequence of this is that a T cell specific for peptide x and a particular MHC allele, MHCa (left panel), will not recognize the complex of peptide x with a different MHC allele, MHCb (center panel), or the complex of peptide y with MHCa (right panel). The co-recognition of peptide and MHC molecule is known as MHC restriction because the MHC molecule is said to restrict the ability of the T cell to recognize antigen. This restriction may either result from direct contact between MHC molecule and T-cell receptor or be an indirect effect of MHC polymorphism on the peptides that bind or on their bound conformation.)
  • 05:23, 11 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.31.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.31. The peptides bound to MHC class II molecules can affect the T-cell receptor repertoire. The left panels show the normal situation, in which a range of peptides is presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to immature T cells in the thymus, with the consequent deletion of self-reactive T cells. The right panels show a case in which a single peptide predominates. Mice with their H-2Mα gene disrupted by targeted mutagenesis express MHC class II molecules that predominantly carry the CLIP peptide of the invariant chain (top right panel). Their MHC class II molecules thus present only the CLIP peptide to T cells maturing in the thymus. CD4 T cells mature in the presence of this single dominant peptide: MHC complex but they are reduced in number by twofold to threefold, even though negative selection of MHC class II-restricted T cells will only remove T cells specific for the CLIP peptide (middle right panel). Mature T cells from such mice respond strongly to MHC-identical APCs, which express the normal array of self peptides (bottom right panel). This shows that a majority of the T cells positively selected by this single dominant MHC:peptide complex are reactive with other self peptides complexed with the same MHC molecule. In normal mice, the T cells bearing these receptors would be deleted by negative selection (middle and bottom left panels).)
  • 05:22, 11 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.30.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.30. Thymic cortical epithelial cells mediate positive selection. The expression of MHC class II molecules in the thymus of normal and mutant strains of mice is shown by coloring the stromal cells only if they are expressing MHC class II molecules. In the thymus of normal mice (first panels), which express MHC class II molecules on epithelial cells in the thymic cortex (blue) as well as on medullary epithelial cells (orange) and bone marrow-derived cells (yellow), both CD4 (blue) and CD8 (red) T cells mature. Double-positive thymocytes are shown as half red/half blue. The second panels represent mutant mice in which MHC class II expression has been eliminated by targeted gene disruption; in these mice, few CD4 T cells develop, although CD8 T cells develop normally. In MHC class II-negative mice containing an MHC class II transgene engineered so that it is expressed only on the epithelial cells of the thymic cortex (third panels), normal numbers of CD4 T cells mature. The MHC class II molecule needs to be able to interact with the CD4 protein, as mutant MHC class II molecules with a defective CD4 binding site do not allow the positive selection of CD4 T cells (fourth panels). Thus, the cortical epithelial cells are the critical cell type mediating positive selection.)
  • 05:21, 11 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.27.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.27. Positive selection is revealed by bone marrow chimeric mice. As shown in the top two sets of panels, bone marrow from an MHCa×b F1 hybrid mouse is transferred to a lethally irradiated recipient mouse of either parental MHC type (MHCa or MHCb). When these chimeric mice are immunized with antigen, the antigen can be presented by the bone marrow-derived MHCa×b APCs in association with both MHCa and MHCb molecules. The T cells from an MHCa×b F1 mouse include cells that respond to antigen presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from MHCa mice and cells that respond to APCs from MHCb mice (not shown). But when T cells from the chimeric animals were tested in vitro with APCs bearing MHCa or MHCb only, they respond far better to antigen presented by the MHC molecules of the recipient MHC type, as shown in the bottom panels. This shows that the T cells have undergone positive selection for MHC restriction in the recipient thymus.)
  • 21:06, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.43.jpg"
  • 21:05, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.43.jpg" (Reverted to earlier revision)
  • 21:05, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.43.jpg"
  • 20:48, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.35.jpg" (Janeway Figure 9.35. IgE antibody cross-linking on mast-cell surfaces leads to a rapid release of inflammatory mediators. Mast cells are large cells found in connective tissue that can be distinguished by secretory granules containing many inflammatory mediators. They bind stably to monomeric IgE antibodies through the very high-affinity Fc receptor I. Antigen cross-linking of the bound IgE antibody molecules triggers rapid degranulation, releasing inflammatory mediators into the surrounding tissue. These mediators trigger local inflammation, which recruits cells and proteins required for host defense to sites of infection. These cells are also triggered during allergic reactions when allergens bind to IgE on mast cells. Photographs courtesy of A.M. Dvorak.)
  • 20:48, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.34.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.34. Antibody-coated target cells can be killed by NK cells in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells (see Chapter 2) are large granular non-T, non-B lymphoid cells that have FcγRIII (CD16) on their surface. When these cells encounter cells coated with IgG antibody, they rapidly kill the target cell. The importance of ADCC in host defense or tissue damage is still controversial.)
  • 20:47, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.32.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.32. Fc and complement receptors on phagocytes trigger the uptake and degradation of antibody-coated bacteria. Many bacteria resist phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils. Antibodies bound to these bacteria, however, enable them to be ingested and degraded through interaction of the multiple Fc domains arrayed on the bacterial surface with Fc receptors on the phagocyte surface. Antibody coating also induces activation of the complement system and the binding of complement components to the bacterial surface. These can interact with complement receptors (for example CR1) on the phagocyte. Fc receptors and complement receptors synergize in inducing phagocytosis. Bacteria coated with IgG antibody and complement are therefore more readily ingested than those coated with IgG alone. Binding of Fc and complement receptors signals the phagocyte to increase the rate of phagocytosis, fuse lysosomes with phagosomes, and increase its bactericidal activity.)
  • 20:46, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.18.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.18. Properties of different classes of antigen that elicit antibody responses.)
  • 20:44, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.13.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.13. After T-cell-dependent activation, B cells undergo rounds of mutation and selection for higher-affinity mutants in the germinal center, ultimately resulting in high-affinity memory B cells and antibody secreted from plasma cells. B cells are first activated outside of follicles by the combination of antigen and T cells (top panel). They migrate to germinal centers (GCs; not shown), where the remaining events occur. Somatic hypermutation can result in amino acid replacements in immunoglobulin V regions that affect the fate of the B cell. Mutations that result in a B-cell receptor (BCR) of lower affinity for the antigen (left panels) will prevent the B cell from being activated as efficiently, as both B-cell receptor cross-linking and the ability of the B cell to present peptide antigen to T cells are reduced. This results in the B cell dying by apoptosis. In this way, low-affinity cells are purged from the germinal center. Most mutations are either negative or neutral (not shown) and thus the germinal center is a site of massive B-cell death as well as of proliferation. Some mutations, however, will improve the ability of the B-cell receptor to bind antigen. This increases the B cell's chance of interacting with T cells, and thus of proliferating and surviving (right panels). Surviving cells undergo repeated cycles of mutation and selection during which some of the progeny B cells undergo differentiation to either memory B cells or plasma cells (bottom right panels) and leave the germinal center. The signals that control these differentiation decisions are unknown.)
  • 20:44, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.7.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.7. Different cytokines induce switching to different isotypes. The individual cytokines induce (violet) or inhibit (red) production of certain isotypes. Much of the inhibitory effect is probably the result of directed switching to a different isotype. These data are drawn from experiments with mouse cells.)
  • 20:43, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.5.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.5. Armed helper T cells stimulate the proliferation and then the differentiation of antigen-binding B cells. The specific interaction of an antigen-binding B cell with an armed helper T cell leads to the expression of the B-cell stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) on the helper T-cell surface and to the secretion of the B-cell stimulatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, which drive the proliferation and differentiation of the B cell into antibody-secreting plasma cells. )
  • 20:42, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.4.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.4. Protein antigens attached to polysaccharide antigens allow T cells to help polysaccharide-specific B cells. Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine is a conjugate of bacterial polysaccharide and the tetanus toxoid protein. The B cell recognizes and binds the polysaccharide, internalizes and degrades the whole conjugate and then displays toxoid-derived peptides on surface MHC class II molecules. Helper T cells generated in response to earlier vaccination against the toxoid recognize the complex on the B-cell surface and activate the B cell to produce anti-polysaccharide antibody. This antibody can then protect against infection with H. influenzae type B.)
  • 20:41, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.3.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.3. B cells and helper T cells must recognize epitopes of the same molecular complex in order to interact. An epitope on a viral coat protein is recognized by the surface immunoglobulin on a B cell and the virus is internalized and degraded. Peptides derived from viral proteins, including internal proteins, are returned to the B-cell surface bound to MHC class II molecules (see Chapter 5). Here, these complexes are recognized by helper T cells, which help to activate the B cells to produce antibody against the coat protein.)
  • 20:40, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.2.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.2. A second signal is required for B-cell activation by either thymus-dependent or thymus-independent antigens. The first signal required for B-cell activation is delivered through its antigen receptor (top panel). For thymus-dependent antigens, the second signal is delivered by a helper T cell that recognizes degraded fragments of the antigen as peptides bound to MHC class II molecules on the B-cell surface (center panel); the interaction between CD40 ligand (CD40L) on the T cell and CD40 on the B cell contributes an essential part of this second signal. For thymus-independent antigens, the second signal can be delivered by the antigen itself (lower panel), or by non-thymus-derived accessory cells (not shown).)
  • 20:40, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-9.1.gif" (Janeway Figure 9.1. The humoral immune response is mediated by antibody molecules that are secreted by plasma cells. Antigen that binds to the B-cell antigen receptor signals B cells and is, at the same time, internalized and processed into peptides that activate armed helper T cells. Signals from the bound antigen and from the helper T cell induce the B cell to proliferate and differentiate into a plasma cell secreting specific antibody (top two panels). These antibodies protect the host from infection in three main ways. They can inhibit the toxic effects or infectivity of pathogens by binding to them: this is termed neutralization (bottom left panel). By coating the pathogens, they can enable accessory cells that recognize the Fc portions of arrays of antibodies to ingest and kill the pathogen, a process called opsonization (bottom center panel). Antibodies can also trigger activation of the complement system. Complement proteins can strongly enhance opsonization, and can directly kill some bacterial cells (bottom right panel).)
  • 20:38, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.43.jpg" (Janeway Figure 8.43. Granulomas form when an intracellular pathogen or its constituents cannot be totally eliminated. When mycobacteria (red) resist the effects of macrophage activation, a characteristic localized inflammatory response called a granuloma develops. This consists of a central core of infected macrophages. The core may include multinucleated giant cells, which are fused macro-phages, surrounded by large macro-phages often called epithelioid cells. Mycobacteria can persist in the cells of the granuloma. The central core is surrounded by T cells, many of which are CD4-positive. The exact mechanisms by which this balance is achieved, and how it breaks down, are unknown. Granulomas, as seen in the bottom panel, also form in the lungs and elsewhere in a disease known as sarcoidosis, which may be caused by occult mycobacterial infection. Photograph courtesy of J. Orrell.)
  • 20:38, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.42.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.42. The immune response to intracellular bacteria is coordinated by activated TH1 cells. The activation of TH1 cells by infected macrophages results in the synthesis of cytokines that both activate the macrophage and coordinate the immune response to intracellular pathogens. IFN-γ and CD40 ligand synergize in activating the macrophage, which allows it to kill engulfed pathogens. Chronically infected macrophages lose the ability to kill intracellular bacteria, and Fas ligand or TNF-β produced by the TH1 cell can kill these macrophages, releasing the engulfed bacteria, which are taken up and killed by fresh macrophages. In this way, IFN-γ and TNF-β synergize in the removal of intracellular bacteria. IL-2 produced by TH1 cells induces T-cell proliferation and potentiates the release of other cytokines. IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate the production of new macrophages by acting on hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. New macrophages are recruited to the site of infection by the action of TNF-α and TNF-β (and other cytokines) on vascular endothelium, which signal macrophages to leave the bloodstream and enter the tissues. A chemokine with macrophage chemotactic activity (MCP-1) signals macrophages to migrate into sites of infection and accumulate there. Thus, the TH1 cell coordinates a macrophage response that is highly effective in destroying intracellular infectious agents.)
  • 20:37, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.41.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.41. Activated macrophages undergo changes that greatly increase their antimicrobial effectiveness and amplify the immune response. Activated macrophages increase their expression of CD40 and of TNF receptors, and secrete TNF-α. This autocrine stimulus synergizes with IFN-γ secreted by TH1 cells to increase the antimicrobial action of the macrophage, in particular by inducing the production of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen radicals (O2). The macrophage also upregulates its B7 molecules in response to binding to CD40 ligand on the T cell, and increases its expression of MHC class II molecules, thus allowing further activation of resting CD4 T cells.)
  • 20:36, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.40.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.40. TH1 cells activate macrophages to become highly microbicidal. When an armed effector TH1 cell specific for a bacterial peptide contacts an infected macrophage, the T cell is induced to secrete the macrophage-activating factor IFN-γ and to express CD40 ligand. Together, these newly synthesized TH1 proteins activate the macrophage.)
  • 20:34, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.16.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.16. Microbial substances can induce co-stimulatory activity in macrophages. If protein antigens are taken up and presented by macro-phages in the absence of bacterial components that induce co-stimulatory activity in the macrophage, T cells specific for the antigen will become anergic (refractory to activation). Many bacteria induce the expression of co-stimulators by antigen-presenting cells, and macrophages presenting peptide antigens derived by degradation of such bacteria can activate naive T cells. When bacteria are mixed with protein antigens, the protein antigens are rendered immunogenic because the bacteria induce co-stimulatory B7 molecules in the antigen-presenting cells. Such added bacteria act as adjuvants (see Appendix I, Section A-4).)
  • 20:34, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.15.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.15. Langerhans' cells can take up antigen in the skin and migrate to lymphoid organs where they present it to T cells. Langerhans' cells can ingest antigen by several means, but have no co-stimulatory activity. In the presence of infection, they take up antigen locally in the skin and then migrate to the lymph nodes. There they differentiate into dendritic cells that can no longer ingest antigen but now have co-stimulatory activity.)
  • 20:33, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.14.jpg" (Janeway Figure 8.14. Dendritic cells mature through at least two definable stages to become potent antigen-presenting cells in lymphoid tissue. Dendritic cells arise from bone marrow progenitors and migrate via the blood to peripheral tissues and organs, where they are highly phagocytic via receptors such as DEC 205 and are actively macro-pinocytic but do not express co-stimulatory molecules (top panel). At sites of infection they pick up antigen and are induced to migrate via the afferent lymphatic vessels to the regional lymph node (see Fig. 8.15). Here they exhibit high levels of T-cell-activating potential but are no longer phagocytic. Dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue express B7.1, B7.2, and high levels of MHC class I and class II molecules, as well as high levels of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, ICAM-2, LFA-1, and LFA-3 (center panel). They also express high levels of the dendritic-cell-specific adhesion molecule DC-SIGN, which binds ICAM-3 with high affinity. The photograph shows a mature dendritic cell. Photograph courtesy of J. Barker.)
  • 20:32, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.32.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.32. The nomenclature and functions of well-defined T-cell cytokines. The major actions are noted in boxes. Each cytokine has multiple activities on different cell types. The mixture of cytokines secreted by a given cell type produces many effects through what is called a ‘cytokine network.’ Major activities of effector cytokines are highlighted in red. ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; CTL, cytotoxic lymphocyte; NK, natural killer cell; CSF, colony-stimulating factor; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; NO, nitric oxide.)
  • 20:31, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.4.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.4. Naive T cells encounter antigen during their recirculation through peripheral lymphoid organs. Naive T cells recirculate through peripheral lymphoid organs, such as the lymph node shown here, entering through specialized regions of vascular endothelium called high endothelial venules. On leaving the blood vessel, the T cells enter the deep cortex of the lymph node, where they encounter mature dendritic cells. Those T cells shown in green do not encounter their specific antigen. They receive a survival signal through their interaction with self MHC:self peptide complexes and leave the lymph node through the lymphatics to return to the circulation. T cells shown in blue encounter their specific antigen on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell and are activated to proliferate and to differentiate into armed effector T cells. These antigen-specific armed effector T cells, now increased a hundred-fold to a thousandfold in number, also leave the lymph node via the efferent lymphatics and enter the circulation.)
  • 20:29, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.18.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.18. The properties of the various antigen-presenting cells. Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells are the main cell types involved in the initial presentation of foreign antigens to naive T cells. These cells vary in their means of antigen uptake, MHC class II expression, co-stimulator expression, the type of antigen they present effectively, their locations in the body, and their surface adhesion molecules (not shown).)
  • 20:28, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.31.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.31. The three main types of armed effector T cell produce distinct sets of effector molecules. CD8 T cells are predominantly killer T cells that recognize pathogen-derived peptides bound to MHC class I molecules. They release perforin (which creates holes in the target cell membrane), granzymes (which are proteases that act intracellularly to trigger apoptosis), and often the cytokine IFN-γ. A membrane-bound effector molecule expressed on CD8 T cells is Fas ligand. When this binds to Fas on a target cell it activates apoptosis in the Fas-bearing cell. CD4 T cells recognize peptides bound to MHC class II molecules and are of two functional types: TH1 and TH2. TH1 cells are specialized to activate macrophages that are infected by or have ingested pathogens; they secrete IFN-γ as well as other effector molecules, and express membrane-bound CD40 ligand and/or Fas ligand. These are both members of the TNF family but CD40 ligand triggers the activation of the target cell, whereas Fas ligand triggers the death of Fas-expressing cells, so their pattern of expression has a strong influence on their function. TH2 cells are specialized for B-cell activation; they secrete the B-cell growth factors IL-4 and IL-5. The principal membrane-bound effector molecule expressed by TH2 cells is CD40 ligand, which binds to CD40 on the B cell and induces B-cell proliferation.)
  • 20:27, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.27.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.27. There are three classes of effector T cell, specialized to deal with three classes of pathogen. CD8 cytotoxic cells (left panels) kill target cells that display peptide fragments of cytosolic pathogens, most notably viruses, bound to MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. TH1 cells (middle panels) and TH2 cells (right panels) both express the CD4 co-receptor and recognize fragments of antigens degraded within intracellular vesicles, displayed at the cell surface by MHC class II molecules. TH1 cells activate macrophages, enabling them to destroy intracellular microorganisms more efficiently; they can also activate B cells to produce strongly opsonizing antibodies belonging to certain IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG3 in humans, and their homologues IgG2a and IgG2b in the mouse). TH2 cells, on the other hand, drive B cells to differentiate and produce immunoglobulins of all other types, and are responsible for initiating B-cell responses by activating naive B cells to proliferate and secrete IgM. The various types of immunoglobulin together make up the effector molecules of the humoral immune response.)
  • 20:26, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.1.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.1. The role of effector T cells in cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to representative pathogens. Cell-mediated immune responses involve the destruction of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells, or the destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages activated by TH1 cells, and are directed principally at intracellular pathogens. However, TH1 cells can also contribute to humoral immunity by inducing the production of strongly opsonizing antibodies, whereas TH2 cells initiate the humoral response by activating naive B cells to secrete IgM, and induce the production of other antibody isotypes including weakly opsonizing antibodies such as IgG1 and IgG3 (mouse) and IgG2 and IgG4 (human) as well as IgA and IgE (mouse and human). All types of antibody contribute to humoral immunity, which is directed principally at extracellular pathogens. Note, however, that both cell-mediated and humoral immunity are involved in many infections, such as the response to Pneumocystis carinii, which requires antibody for ingestion by phagocytes and macrophage activation for effective destruction of the ingested pathogen.)
  • 20:23, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.36.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.36. The differences between negative and positive selection may be due to differences in the aggregation of T-cell receptors upon ligand binding. Agonist, antagonist, and null peptides can be identified for a particular T-cell receptor by assaying the responses of mature T-cell clones. Their effects on mature T cells in vivo can be tested in mice made transgenic for this T-cell receptor (left-hand panels). By using thymic lobe organ cultures from mice that have also been genetically engineered to express only the MHC class I molecule recognized by the receptor, it is possible to test for the effects of these peptides on thymocyte development (right-hand panels). Binding to an agonist peptide (top panels) induces organized aggregation of T-cell receptors on the cell surface and effective signaling through the T-cell receptor. Agonist peptides trigger the full activation of mature T cells, however if they are encountered as self peptides by developing thymocytes they induce apoptosis and hence negative selection. Antagonist peptides (center panels) bind the T-cell receptor but fail to induce organized receptor aggregation. These peptides inhibit mature T cells but can drive the positive selection of developing thymocytes. Irrelevant peptides fail to engage the T-cell receptor at all and are ignored by mature T cells and developing thymocytes. If only irrelevant peptides are presented, the thymocyte is not positively selected and it dies by neglect.)
  • 20:23, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.35.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.35. The specificity or affinity of positive selection must differ from that of negative selection. Immature T cells are positively selected in such a way that only those thymocytes whose receptors can engage the peptide:MHC complexes on thymic epithelium mature, giving rise to a population of thymocytes restricted for self MHC. Negative selection removes those thymocytes whose receptors engage with self peptides complexed with self MHC molecules, giving a self-tolerant population of thymocytes. If the specificity and/or avidity of positive and negative selection were the same (left panels), all the T cells that survive positive selection would be deleted during negative selection. Only if the specificity and/or avidity of negative selection is different from that of positive selection (right panels) can thymocytes mature into T cells.)
  • 20:21, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.22.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.22. The stages of gene rearrangement in α:β T cells. The sequence of gene rearrangements is shown, together with an indication of the stage at which the events take place and the nature of the cell-surface receptor molecules expressed at each stage. The β-chain locus rearranges first, in CD4- CD8- double-negative thymocytes expressing CD25 and low levels of CD44. As with immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes, D to J gene segments rearrange before V gene segments rearrange to DJ (second and third panels). It is possible to make up to four attempts to generate a productive rearrangement at the β-chain locus, as there are four D gene segments and two sets of J gene segments (not shown). The productively rearranged gene is expressed initially within the cell and then at low levels on the cell surface. It associates with pTα, a surrogate 33 kDa α chain that is equivalent to λ5 in B-cell development, and this pTα:β heterodimer forms a complex with the CD3 chains (fourth panel). The expression of the pre-T-cell receptor signals the developing thymocytes via the tyrosine kinase Lck to halt β-chain gene rearrangement, and to undergo multiple cycles of division. At the end of this proliferative burst, the CD4 and CD8 molecules are expressed, the cell ceases cycling, and the α chain is now able to undergo rearrangement. The first α-chain gene rearrangement deletes all δ D, J, and C gene segments on that chromosome, although these are retained as a circular DNA, proving that these are nondividing cells (bottom panel). This permanently inactivates the δ-chain gene. Rearrangements at the α-chain locus can proceed through several cycles, because of the large number of Vα and Jα gene segments, so that productive rearrangements almost always occur. When a functional α chain is produced that pairs efficiently with the β chain, the CD3low CD4+ CD8+ thymocyte is ready to undergo selection for its ability to recognize self peptides in association with self MHC molecules.)
  • 20:21, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.21.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.21. The rearrangement of T-cell receptor γ and δ genes in the mouse proceeds in waves of cells expressing different Vγ and Vδ gene segments. At about 2 weeks of gestation, the Cγ1 locus is expressed with its closest V gene (Vγ5; also known as Vγ3). After a few days Vγ5-bearing cells decline (upper panel) and are replaced by cells expressing the next most proximal gene, Vγ6. Both these rearranged γ chains are expressed with the same rearranged δ-chain gene, as shown in the lower panels, and there is little junctional diversity in either the Vγ or the Vδ chain. As a consequence, most of the γ:δ T cells produced in each of these early waves have the same specificity, although the antigen recognized in each case is not known. The Vγ5-bearing cells become established selectively in the epidermis, whereas the Vγ6-bearing cells become established in the epithelium of the reproductive tract. After birth, the α:β T-cell lineage becomes dominant and, although γ:δ T cells are still produced, they are a much more heterogeneous population, bearing receptors with a great deal of junctional diversity.)
  • 20:19, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.13.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.13. Thymocytes at different developmental stages are found in distinct parts of the thymus. The earliest cells to enter the thymus are found in the subcapsular region of the cortex. As these cells proliferate and mature into double-positive thymocytes, they migrate deeper into the thymic cortex. Finally, the medulla contains only mature single-positive T cells, which eventually leave the thymus and enter the bloodstream.)
  • 20:18, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.12.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.12. The correlation of stages of α:β T-cell development with T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and expression of cell-surface proteins. Lymphoid precursors are triggered to proliferate and become thymocytes committed to the T-cell lineage through interactions with the thymic stroma. These negative cells express CD44 and c-Kit and, at a later stage, the α chain of the IL-2 receptor, CD25. After this, the CD44+ CD25+ cells begin to rearrange the β-chain locus, becoming CD44low and c-Kitlow as this occurs. The cells are arrested in the CD44low CD25+ stage until they productively rearrange the β-chain locus; the in-frame β chain then pairs with the surrogate pTα chain and is expressed on the cell surface, which triggers entry into the cell cycle. Expression of pTα:β on the cell surface is associated with small amounts of CD3, and causes the loss of CD25, cessation of β-chain gene rearrangement, cell proliferation, and the expression of CD4 and CD8. After the cells cease proliferating and revert to small CD4+ CD8+ double-positive cells, they begin rearrangement at the α-chain locus. The cells then express low levels of an α:β T-cell receptor and the associated CD3 complex and are ready for selection. Most cells die by failing to be positively selected or as a consequence of negative selection, but some are selected to mature into CD4 or CD8 single-positive cells and eventually to leave the thymus.)
  • 20:16, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.11.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.11. Changes in cell-surface molecules allow thymocyte populations at different stages of maturation to be distinguished. The most important cell-surface molecules for identifying thymocyte subpopulations have been CD4, CD8, and T-cell receptor complex molecules (CD3, and the T-cell receptor α and β chains). The earliest cell population in the thymus does not express any of these. As these cells do not express CD4 or CD8, they are called ‘double-negative’ thymocytes. These precursor cells give rise to two T-cell lineages, the minority population of γ:δ T cells (which lack CD4 or CD8 even when mature), and the majority α:β T-cell lineage. Development of prospective α:β T cells proceeds through stages where both CD4 and CD8 are expressed by the same cell; these are known as ‘double-positive’ thymocytes. At first, double-positive cells express the pre-T-cell receptor (pTα:β). These cells enlarge and divide. Later, they become small resting double-positive cells in which low levels of the T-cell receptor (α:β) itself are expressed. Most thymocytes (~97%) die within the thymus after becoming small double-positive cells. Those cells whose receptors can interact with self MHC molecules lose expression of either CD4 or CD8 and increase the level of expression of the T-cell receptor. The outcome of this process are the ‘single-positive’ thymocytes, which, after maturation, are exported from the thymus as mature single-positive CD4 or CD8 T cells.)
  • 20:15, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.2.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.2. The development of T cells. T-cell development follows broadly similar lines to that of B cells. T-cell precursors migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus where the T-cell receptor genes are rearranged (first panels), α:β T-cell receptors that are compatible with self MHC molecules transmit a survival signal on interacting with thymic epithelium, leading to positive selection of the cells that bear them. Self-reactive receptors transmit a signal that leads to cell death and are thus removed from the repertoire in a process of negative selection (second panels). T cells that survive selection mature and leave the thymus to circulate in the periphery; they repeatedly leave the blood to migrate through the peripheral lymphoid organs where they may encounter their specific foreign antigen and become activated (third panels). Activation leads to clonal expansion and differentiation into effector T cells. These are attracted to sites of infection where they can kill infected cells or activate macrophages (fourth panels); others are attracted into B-cell areas where they help to activate an antibody response (not shown).)
  • 20:14, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.7.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.7. The cellular organization of the human thymus. The thymus, which lies in the midline of the body, above the heart, is made up of several lobules, each of which contains discrete cortical (outer) and medullary (central) regions. As shown in the diagram on the left, the cortex consists of immature thymocytes (dark blue), branched cortical epithelial cells (pale blue), with which the immature cortical thymocytes are closely associated, and scattered macrophages (yellow), which are involved in clearing apoptotic thymocytes. The medulla consists of mature thymocytes (dark blue), and medullary epithelial cells (orange), along with macrophages (yellow) and dendritic cells (yellow) of bone marrow origin. Hassall's corpuscles are probably also sites of cell destruction. The thymocytes in the outer cortical cell layer are proliferating immature cells, whereas the deeper cortical thymocytes are mainly immature T cells undergoing thymic selection. The photograph shows the equivalent section of a human thymus, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The cortex is darkly staining; the medulla is lightly stained. The large body in the medulla is a Hassall's corpuscle. Photograph courtesy of C.J. Howe.)
  • 20:12, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.37.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.37. A comparison of the properties of B-1 cells and conventional B cells (B-2 cells). B-1 cells can develop in unusual sites in the fetus, such as the omentum, in addition to the liver. B-1 cells predominate in the young animal although they probably can be produced throughout life. Being mainly produced during fetal and neonatal life, their rearranged variable-region sequences contain few N-nucleotides. B-1 cells are best thought of as a partially activated self-renewing pool of lymphocytes that are selected by ubiquitous self and foreign antigens. Because of this selection, and possibly because the cells are produced early in life, the B-1 cells have a restricted repertoire of variable regions and antigen-binding specificities. B-1 cells seem to be the major population of B cells in certain body cavities, most probably because of exposure at these sites to antigens that drive B-1 cell proliferation. Partial activation also leads to secretion of mainly IgM antibody; B-1 cells contribute much of the IgM that circulates in the blood. The limited diversity of the B-1 cell repertoire and the propensity of B-1 cells to react with common bacterial carbohydrate antigens suggest that they carry out a more primitive, less adaptive, immune response than conventional B cells (B-2 cells). In this regard, they are comparable to γ:δ T cells.)
  • 20:10, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.25.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.25. Binding to self molecules in the bone marrow can lead to the death or inactivation of immature B cells. Left panels: when developing B cells express receptors that recognize multivalent ligands, for example, ubiquitous self cell-surface molecules such as those of the MHC, they are deleted from the repertoire (clonal deletion). These B cells either undergo receptor editing, so that the self-reactive receptor specificity is deleted, or the cells themselves undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis. Center left panels: immature B cells that bind soluble self antigens able to cross-link the B-cell receptor are rendered unresponsive to the antigen (anergic) and bear little surface IgM. They migrate to the periphery where they express IgD but remain anergic; if in competition with other B cells in the periphery, they are rapidly lost. Center right panels: immature B cells that bind soluble self antigens with low affinity or that bind monovalent antigens do not receive any signal as a result of this interaction and mature normally to express both IgM and IgD at the cell surface. Such cells are potentially self-reactive, and they are said to be clonally ignorant as their ligand is present but is not able to activate them. Right panels: immature B cells that do not encounter antigen mature normally; they migrate from the bone marrow to the peripheral lymphoid tissues where they may become mature recirculating B cells bearing both IgM and IgD on their surface.)
  • 20:09, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.26.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.26. Replacement of light chains by receptor editing can rescue some self-reactive B cells by changing their antigen specificity. When a developing B cell expresses antigen receptors that are strongly cross-linked by multivalent self antigens such as MHC molecules on cell surfaces (top panel), the B cell undergoes developmental arrest. The cell lowers surface expression of IgM and does not turn off the RAG genes (second panel). Continued synthesis of RAG proteins allows the cell to continue light-chain gene rearrangement. This usually leads to a new productive rearrangement and expression of a new light chain, which combines with the previous heavy chain to form a new receptor (receptor editing; third panel). If this new receptor is not self-reactive, the cell is ‘rescued’ and continues normal development much like a cell that had never reacted with self (bottom right panel). If the cell remains self-reactive, it may be rescued by another cycle of rearrangement, but if it continues to react strongly with self it will undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis and be deleted from the repertoire (clonal deletion; bottom left panel).)
  • 20:08, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.40.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.40. Proposed population dynamics of conventional B cells. B cells are produced as receptor-positive immature B cells in the bone marrow. The most avidly self-reactive B cells are removed at this stage. B cells then migrate to the periphery where they enter the secondary lymphoid tissues. It is estimated that 1020 × 106 B cells are produced by the bone marrow and exported each day in a mouse, and an equal number is lost from the periphery. There seem to be two classes of peripheral B cell: long-lived B cells and short-lived B cells. The short-lived B cells are, by definition, recently formed B cells. Most of the turnover of short-lived B cells might result from B cells that fail to enter lymphoid follicles. In some cases this is a consequence of being rendered anergic by binding to soluble self antigen; for the remaining immature B cells, entry into lymphoid follicles is thought to entail some form of positive selection. Thus the remainder of the short-lived B cells fail to join the long-lived pool because they are not positively selected. About 90% of all peripheral B cells are relatively long-lived mature B cells that appear to have undergone positive selection in the periphery. These mature naive B cells recirculate through peripheral lymphoid tissues and have a half-life of 68 weeks in mice. Memory B cells, which have been activated previously by antigen and T cells, are thought to have a longer life.)
  • 20:07, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.45.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.45. A summary of the development of human conventional B-lineage cells. The state of the immunoglobulin genes, the expression of some essential intracellular proteins, and the expression of some cell-surface molecules are shown for successive stages of B-2-cell development. Note that since the immunoglobulin genes undergo further changes during antigen-driven development, such as isotype switch and somatic hypermutation (see Chapter 4), these are chronicled throughout development.)
  • 20:04, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.18.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.18. The temporal expression of several cellular proteins known to be important for B-cell development. The proteins listed here are a selection of those known to be associated with early B-lineage development, and have been included because of their proven importance in the developmental sequence, largely on the basis of studies in mice. Their individual contributions to B-cell development are discussed in the text, with the exception of the Octamer Transcription Factor, Oct-2, which binds the octamer ATGCAAAT found in the heavy-chain promoter and elsewhere, and GATA-2, which is one example of the many transcription factors that are active in several hematopoietic lineages. The pax-5 gene product, known as B-lineage-specific activator protein (BSAP), is involved in regulating the expression of several of the other proteins listed. The tight temporal regulation of the expression of these proteins, and of the immunoglobulin genes themselves, would be expected to impose a strict sequence on the events of B-cell differentiation.)
  • 20:03, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.14.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.14. The steps in immunoglobulin gene rearrangement at which cells can be lost. The developmental program usually rearranges the heavy-chain (H-chain) locus first and then the light-chain (L-chain) loci. Cells are allowed to progress to the next stage when a productive rearrangement has been achieved. Each rearrangement has about a one in three chance of being successful, but if the first attempt is nonproductive, development is suspended and there is a chance for one or more further attempts. The scope for repeated rearrangements is greater at the light-chain loci (see Fig. 7.16), so that fewer cells are lost between the pre-B and immature B cell stages than in the pro-B to pre-B transition.)
  • 20:02, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.5.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.5. The development of a B-lineage cell proceeds through several stages marked by the rearrangement and expression of the immunoglobulin genes. The stem cell has not yet begun to rearrange its immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments; they are in the germline configuration as found in all nonlymphoid cells. The heavy-chain (H-chain) locus rearranges first. Rearrangement of a D gene segment to a JH gene segment occurs in early pro-B cells, generating late pro-B cells in which VH to DJH rearrangement occurs. A successful VDJH rearrangement leads to the expression of a complete immunoglobulin heavy chain as part of the pre-B-cell receptor, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm and to some degree on the surface of the cell. Once this occurs the cell is stimulated to become a large pre-B cell which actively divides. Large pre-B cells then cease dividing and become small resting pre-B cells, at which point they cease expression of the surrogate light chains and express the μ heavy chain alone in the cytoplasm. When the cells are again small, they reexpress the RAG proteins and start to rearrange the light-chain (L-chain) genes. Upon successfully assembling a light-chain gene, a cell becomes an immature B cell that expresses a complete IgM molecule at the cell surface. Mature B cells produce a δ heavy chain as well as a μ heavy chain, by a mechanism of alternative mRNA splicing, and are marked by the additional appearance of IgD on the cell surface.)
  • 20:01, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.3.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.3. The early stages of B-cell development are dependent on bone marrow stromal cells. The upper panels show the interactions between precursor B cells and stromal cells that are required for the development to the immature B-cell stage. The designations pro-B cell and pre-B cell refer to defined phases of B-cell development as described in Fig. 7.5. Lymphoid progenitor cells and early pro-B cells bind to the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 on stromal cells through the integrin VLA-4 and also interact through other cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs). These adhesive interactions promote the binding of the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit on the surface of the pro-B cell to stem-cell factor (SCF) on the stromal cell, which activates the kinase and induces the proliferation of the B-cell progenitors. Later stages require interleukin-7 (IL-7) for proliferation and further development. Panel a: light micrograph showing small round cells, which are the B-lymphoid progenitors, in intimate contact with cultured stromal cells, which have extended processes fastening them to the plastic dish on which they are grown. Panel b: high-magnification electron micrograph of a similar cell culture in which two lymphoid cells are seen adhering to a flattened stromal cell. Photographs courtesy of A. Rolink (a); P. Kincade and P.L. Witte (b).)
  • 19:59, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-7.1.gif" (Janeway Figure 7.1. B cells originate from a lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow. In the first phase of development, progenitor B cells in the bone marrow rearrange their immunoglobulin genes. This phase is independent of antigen but is dependent on interactions with bone marrow stromal cells (first panels). It ends in an immature B cell that carries an antigen receptor in the form of cell-surface IgM and can now interact with antigens in its environment. Immature B cells that are strongly stimulated by antigen at this stage either die or are inactivated in a process of negative selection, thus removing many self-reactive B cells from the repertoire (second panels). In the third phase of development, the surviving immature B cells emerge into the periphery and mature to express IgD as well as IgM. They can now be activated by encounter with their specific foreign antigen in a secondary lymphoid organ (third panels). Activated B cells proliferate, and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells and long-lived memory cells (fourth panels).)
  • 19:56, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.19.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.19. High-affinity IL-2 receptors are three-chain structures that are produced only on activated T cells. On resting T cells, the β and γ chains are expressed constitutively. They bind IL-2 with moderate affinity. Activation of T cells induces the synthesis of the α chain and the formation of the high-affinity heterotrimeric receptor. The β and γ chains show similarities in amino acid sequence to cell-surface receptors for growth hormone and prolactin, both of which also regulate cell growth and differentiation.)
  • 19:52, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-8.5.gif" (Janeway Figure 8.5. L-Selectin and the mucinlike vascular addressins direct naive lymphocyte homing to lymphoid tissues. L-Selectin is expressed on naive T cells, which bind to sulfated sialyl-Lewisx moieties on the vascular addressins CD34 and GlyCAM-1 on high endothelial venules in order to enter lymph nodes. The relative importance of CD34 and GlyCAM-1 in this interaction is unclear. GlyCAM-1 is expressed exclusively on high endothelial venules but has no transmembrane region and it is unclear how it is attached to the membrane; CD34 has a transmembrane anchor and is expressed in appropriately glycosylated form only on high endothelial venule cells, although it is found in other forms on other endothelial cells. The addressin MAdCAM-1 is expressed on mucosal endothelium and guides entry into mucosal lymphoid tissue. The icon shown represents mouse MadCAM-1, which contains an IgA-like domain closest to the cell membrane; human MadCAM-1 has an elongated mucinlike domain and lacks the IgA-like domain. L-Selectin recognizes the carbohydrate moieties on the vascular addressins.)
  • 19:51, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-6.23.gif" (Janeway Figure 6.23. Binding of Fas ligand to Fas initiates the process of apoptosis. The Fas ligand (FasL) recognized by Fas is a homotrimer, and when it binds it induces the trimerization of Fas. This brings the death domains in the Fas cytoplasmic tails together. A number of adaptor proteins containing death domains bind to the death domains of Fas, in particular the protein FADD, which in turn interacts through a second death domain with the protease caspase 8. Clustered caspase 8 can transactivate, cleaving caspase 8 itself to release an active caspase domain that in turn can activate other caspases. The ensuing caspase cascade culminates in the activation of the caspase-activatable DNase (CAD), which is present in all cells in an inactive cytoplasmic form bound to an inhibitory protein called I-CAD. When I-CAD is broken down by caspases, CAD can enter the nucleus where it cleaves DNA into the 200-base-pair fragments that are characteristic of apoptosis.)
  • 19:49, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-6.15.gif" (Janeway Figure 6.15. Simplified outline of the intracellular signaling pathways initiated by the T-cell receptor complex and its co-receptor. The T-cell receptor complex and co-receptor (in this example the CD4 molecule) are associated with Src-family protein kinases, Fyn and Lck, respectively. It is thought that binding of a peptide:MHC ligand to the T-cell receptor and co-receptor brings together CD4, the T-cell receptor complex, and CD45. This allows the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase to remove inhibitory phosphate groups and thereby allow the activation of Lck and Fyn. Phosphorylation of the ζ chains enables them to bind the cytosolic tyrosine kinase ZAP-70. In freshly isolated T cells, inactive ZAP-70 is already bound to theζ chain, so this step is thought to occur before stimulation with specific antigen. The subsequent activation of bound ZAP-70 by phosphorylation leads to three important signaling pathways. ZAP-70 phosphorylates the adaptor proteins LAT and SLP-76, which in turn leads to the activation of PLC-γ by Tec kinases and the activation of Ras by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors. As illustrated, activated PLC-γ and Ras initiate three important signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of transcription factors in the nucleus. Together, NFκB, NFAT, and AP-1 act on the T-cell chromosomes, initiating new gene transcription that results in the differentiation, proliferation and effector actions of T cells. As with Fig. 6.14, this model is a simplified version showing the main events only.)
  • 19:48, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-6.8.gif" (Janeway Figure 6.8. The T-cell receptor complex is made up of antigen-recognition proteins and invariant signaling proteins. The T-cell receptor α:β heterodimer (TCR) recognizes and binds its peptide:MHC ligand, but cannot signal to the cell that antigen has bound. In the functional receptor complex, α:β heterodimers are associated with a complex of four other signaling chains (two , one δ, one γ) collectively called CD3, which are required for the cell-surface expression of the antigen-binding chains and for signaling. The cell-surface receptor complex is also associated with a homodimer of ζ chains, which signal to the interior of the cell upon antigen binding. Each CD3 chain has one ITAM (yellow segment), whereas each ζ chain has three. The transmembrane regions of each chain have either a net positive or negative charge as shown. It is thought that each complete receptor complex contains two α:β heterodimers associated with the six accessory chains shown in the figure, in which case the charges would balance.)
  • 19:47, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-6.14.gif" (Janeway Figure 6.14. Simplified outline of the intracellular signaling pathways initiated by cross-linking of B-cell receptors by antigen. Cross-linking of surface immunoglobulin molecules activates the receptor-associated Src-family protein tyrosine kinases Blk, Fyn, and Lyn. The CD45 phosphatase can remove an inhibitory phosphate from these kinases, thus allowing their activation. The receptor-associated kinases phosphorylate the ITAMs in the receptor complex, which bind and activate the cytosolic protein kinase Syk, whose activation has been described in Fig. 6.13. Syk then phosphorylates other targets, including the adaptor protein BLNK, which help to recruit Tec kinases that in turn phosphorylate and activate the enzyme phospholipase C-γ. PLC-γ cleaves the membrane phospholipid PIP2 into IP3 and DAG, thus initiating two of the three main signaling pathways to the nucleus. IP3 releases Ca2+ from intracellular and extracellular sources, and Ca2+-dependent enzymes are activated, whereas DAG activates protein kinase C with the help of Ca2+. The third main signaling pathway is initiated by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that become associated with the receptor and activate small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras. These in turn trigger protein kinase cascades (MAP kinase cascades) that lead to the activation of MAP kinases that move into the nucleus and phosphorylate proteins that regulate gene transcription. This scheme is a simplification of the events that actually occur during signaling, showing only the main events and pathways.)
  • 19:47, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-6.7.gif" (Janeway Figure 6.7. The B-cell receptor complex is made up of cell-surface immuno-globulin with one each of the invariant proteins Igα and Igβ. The immunoglobulin recognizes and binds antigen but cannot itself generate a signal. It is associated with antigen-nonspecific signaling molecules Igα and Igβ. These each have a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), shown as a yellow segment, in their cytosolic tails that enables them to signal when the B-cell receptor is ligated with antigen. Igα and Igβ are disulfide-linked and associated with the heavy chains, but it is not known which binds to the heavy chain.)
  • 19:45, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-5.10.gif" (Janeway Figure 5.10. The genetic organization of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in human and mouse. The organization of the principal MHC genes is shown for both humans (where the MHC is called HLA and is on chromo-some 6) and mice (in which the MHC is called H-2 and is on chromosome 17). The organization of the MHC genes is similar in both species. There are separate clusters of MHC class I genes (shown in red) and MHC class II genes (shown in yellow), although in the mouse an MHC class I gene (H-2K) appears to have translocated relative to the human MHC so that the class I region in mice is split in two. In both species there are three main class I genes, which are called HLA-A, -B, and -C in humans, and H2-K, -D, and -L in the mouse. The gene for β2-microglobulin, although it encodes part of the MHC class I molecule, is located on a different chromosome, chromosome 15 in humans and chromosome 2 in the mouse. The class II region includes the genes for the α and β chains of the antigen-presenting MHC class II molecules HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ (H-2A and -E in the mouse). In addition, the genes for the TAP1:TAP2 peptide transporter, the LMP genes that encode proteasome subunits, the genes encoding the DMα and DMβ chains, the genes encoding the α and β chains of the DO molecule (DNα and DOβ, respectively), and the gene for tapasin (TAPBP) are also in the MHC class II region. The so-called class III genes encode various other proteins with functions in immunity (see Fig. 5.11).)
  • 19:42, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-4.13.gif" (Janeway Figure 4.13. The numbers of human T-cell receptor gene segments and the sources of T-cell receptor diversity compared with those of immunoglobulins. Note that only about half of human κ chains contain N-nucleotides. Somatic hypermutation as a source of diversity in immunoglobulins is not included in this figure.)
  • 19:40, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-4.2.gif" (Janeway Figure 4.2. V-region genes are constructed from gene segments. Light-chain V-region genes are constructed from two segments (center panel). A variable (V) and a joining (J) gene segment in the genomic DNA are joined to form a complete light-chain V-region exon. Immunoglobulin chains are extra-cellular proteins and the V gene segment is preceded by an exon encoding a leader peptide (L), which directs the protein into the cell's secretory pathways and is then cleaved. The light-chain C region is encoded in a separate exon and is joined to the V-region exon by splicing of the light-chain RNA to remove the L-to-V and the J-to-C introns. Heavy-chain V regions are constructed from three gene segments (right panel). First, the diversity (D) and J gene segments join, then the V gene segment joins to the combined DJ sequence, forming a complete VH exon. A heavy-chain C-region gene is encoded by several exons. The C-region exons, together with the leader sequence, are spliced to the V-domain sequence during processing of the heavy-chain RNA transcript. The leader sequence is removed after translation and the disulfide bonds that link the polypeptide chains are formed. The hinge region is shown in purple.)
  • 19:38, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-3.3.gif" (Janeway Figure 3.3. The Y-shaped immunoglobulin molecule can be dissected by partial digestion with proteases. Papain cleaves the immunoglobulin molecule into three pieces, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment (upper panels). The Fab fragment contains the V regions and binds antigen. The Fc fragment is crystallizable and contains C regions. Pepsin cleaves immunoglobulin to yield one F(ab′)2 fragment and many small pieces of the Fc fragment, the largest of which is called the pFc′ fragment (lower panels). F(ab′)2 is written with a prime because it contains a few more amino acids than Fab, including the cysteines that form the disulfide bonds.)
  • 19:36, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-2.27.gif" (Janeway Figure 2.27. The characteristics of receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems are compared. The innate immune system uses receptors that are encoded by intact genes inherited through the germline, whereas the adaptive immune system uses antigen receptors encoded by genes that are assembled from individual gene segments during lymphocyte development, a process that leads to each individual cell expressing a receptor of unique specificity. As a result, receptors of the innate immune system are deployed nonclonally, whereas the antigen receptors of the adaptive immune system are clonally distributed on individual lymphocytes.)
  • 19:34, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-3.1.gif" ( Figure 3.1. Structure of an antibody molecule. Panel a illustrates a ribbon diagram based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of an IgG antibody, showing the course of the backbones of the polypeptide chains. Three globular regions form a Y. The two antigen-binding sites are at the tips of the arms, which are tethered to the trunk of the Y by a flexible hinge region. A schematic representation of the structure in a is given in panel b, illustrating the four-chain composition and the separate domains comprising each chain. Panel c shows a simplified schematic representation of an antibody molecule that will be used throughout this book. Photograph courtesy of A. McPherson and L. Harris, reprinted with permission from Nature 360:369-372, ©1992 Macmillan Magazines Limited.)
  • 19:33, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-2.31.gif" (Janeway Figure 2.31. Important cytokines secreted by macrophages in response to bacterial products include IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and TNF-α. TNF-α is an inducer of a local inflammatory response that helps to contain infections; it also has systemic effects, many of which are harmful (see Section 2-23). IL-8 is also involved in the local inflammatory response, helping to attract neutrophils to the site of infection. IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α have a critical role in inducing the acute-phase response in the liver (see Section 2-24) and induce fever, which favors effective host defense in several ways. IL-12 activates natural killer (NK) cells and favors the differentiation of CD4 T cells into the TH1 subset during adaptive immunity.)
  • 19:32, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Janeway-3.2.gif" (Janeway Figure 3.2. Immunoglobulin molecules are composed of two types of protein chain: heavy chains and light chains. Each immunoglobulin molecule is made up of two heavy chains (green) and two light chains (yellow) joined by disulfide bonds so that each heavy chain is linked to a light chain and the two heavy chains are linked together.)
  • 16:35, 10 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Tuberculosis1DrJohn.pdf" (Tuberculosis Lecture notes (PDF))
  • 04:48, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "StewartPresentation.ppt" (Patient-physician communications lecture presentation (PPT))
  • 04:47, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "StewartHr3.pdf" (Patient-physician communications lecture notes 3 (PDF))
  • 04:47, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "StewartHr2.pdf" (Patient-physician communications lecture notes 2 (PDF))
  • 04:47, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "StewartHr1.pdf" (Patient-physician communications lecture notes 1 (PDF))
  • 04:10, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "LearningDisabilitesDrStPierre.pdf" (Learning disabilities lecture notes (PDF))
  • 03:49, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "MentalRetardationDrNicolson.ppt" (Mental retardation lecture slides (PPT))
  • 01:50, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "WomanAbuseTheHealthIssuesMeganWalker.pdf" (Woman abuse - The health issues (PDF))
  • 01:49, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "WomanAbuseImpactOnChildrenMeganWalker.pdf" (Woman abuse - impact on children (PDF))
  • 01:49, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "WomanAbuseFactsMeganWalker.pdf" (Woman abuse facts (PDF))
  • 01:48, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "WhyAbusedWomenStayMeganWalker.pdf" (Why abused women stay (PDF))
  • 01:48, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "RevisedUnderstandingWomanAbuseMeganWalker.ppt" (Understanding woman abuse (PPT))
  • 01:47, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "PowerAndControlWheelMeganWalker.pdf" (Power and control wheel (PDF))
  • 01:46, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "HowToHelpAnAbusedWomanMeganWalker.pdf" (How to help an abused woman (PDF))
  • 01:46, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "ElderAbuseDrFleming.pdf" (Elder abuse (PDF))
  • 01:46, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "CommonMisconceptionsAboutWomanAbuseMeganWalker.pdf" (Common misconceptions about woman abuse (PDF))
  • 01:38, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "LifeCycleOfTheFamilyDrSwart.ppt" (Life Cycle of the family (PPT))
  • 01:35, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Lifecycle2DrJarmain.pdf" (Life Cycle 2 - Psychiatry week Dr. Jarmain's notes; Erikson, piaget, freud)
  • 01:35, 9 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Lifecycle1DrJarmain.pdf" (Life Cycle 1 - Psychiatry week Dr. Jarmain's notes; Erikson, piaget, freud)
  • 03:04, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image896.gif" (The lacrimal apparatus. Right side.. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus896.html))
  • 03:00, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image890.gif" (Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the superior orbital fissure. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus890.html))
  • 02:59, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image889.gif" (Muscles of the right orbit. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus889.html))
  • 02:53, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image888.gif" (Sagittal section of right orbital cavity. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus888.html))
  • 02:48, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image135.gif" (Frontal bone. Inner surface. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus135.html))
  • 02:36, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image311.gif" (Sagittal section of the articulation of the mandible. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus311.html))
  • 02:32, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image511.gif" (Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery. Source: Gray's Anatomy (http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus511.html))
  • 02:29, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image510.gif" (Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery.)
  • 02:22, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image782.gif" (Mandibular division of trifacial nerve, seen from the middle line. The small figure is an enlarged view of the otic ganglion. (Testut.))
  • 02:19, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image781.gif" (Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve. (Testut.))
  • 01:58, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image789.gif" (The course and connections of the facial nerve in the temporal bone.)
  • 01:29, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image919.gif" (Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of the tympanum. (Testut.))
  • 01:27, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image918.gif" (A. Left stapes. B. Base of stapes, medial surface.)
  • 01:25, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image917.gif" (Left incus. ''Legend'' A. From within.<br>B. From the front.)
  • 01:23, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image916.gif" (Left malleus. A. From behind. B. From within.)
  • 01:20, 6 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image915.gif" (Auditory tube, laid open by a cut in its long axis. (Testut.))
  • 20:09, 5 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image910.gif" (The tympanic membrane viewed from within. (Testut.) The malleus has been resected immediately beyond its lateral process, in order to show the tympanomalleolar folds and the membrana flaccida. 1. Tympanic membrane. 2. Umbo. 3. Handle of the malleus. 4. Lateral process. 5. Anterior tympanomalleolar fold. 6. Posterior tympanomalleolar fold. 7. Pars flaccida. 8. Anterior pouch of Tröltsch. 9. Posterior pouch of Tröltsch. 10. Fibrocartilaginous ring. 11. Petrotympanic fissure. 12. Auditory tube. 13. Iter chordæ posterius. 14. Iter chordæ anterius. 15. Fossa incudis for short crus of the incus. 16. Prominentia styloidea.)
  • 20:07, 5 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image909.gif" (Right tympanic membrane as seen through a speculum.)
  • 19:43, 5 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image138.gif" (Left temporal bone. Inner surface.)
  • 19:40, 5 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image1209.gif" (Left temporal bone showing surface markings for the tympanic antrum (red), transverse sinus (blue), and facial nerve (yellow).)
  • 22:34, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image784.gif" (Sensory areas of the head, showing the general distribution of the three divisions of the fifth nerve. (Modified from Testut.))
  • 22:24, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image790.gif" (The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck.)
  • 22:15, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image557.gif" (Veins of the head and neck)
  • 21:54, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image508.gif" (The arteries of the face and scalp.)
  • 21:53, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image508.gif" (The arteries of the face and scalp.)
  • 19:23, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image378.gif"
  • 18:19, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image519.gif" (Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. A.L. Antero-lateral. A.M. Antero-medial. P.L. Postero-lateral. P.M. Posteromedial ganglionic branches)
  • 18:11, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cranial_nerve_origins.gif" (Cranial nerve origins (gif))
  • 18:11, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cranial_nerve_origins.psd" (Cranial nerve origins (PSD))
  • 15:19, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "BloodstreamInfectionsSepsisAndEndovascularInfectionsDrColby.pdf" (Bloodstream Infections Sepsis and Endovascular Infections (PDF))
  • 15:11, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "SirsSepsisAndModsDrMartin.ppt" (SIRS, Sepsis, and MODS (PPT))
  • 07:53, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image602.gif" (Superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of head and neck.)
  • 04:38, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image769.jpg" (Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. (Modified from Testut.))
  • 04:38, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image769.gif" (Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. (Modified from Testut.))
  • 04:37, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image767.jpg" (The medulla spinalis and its membranes)
  • 04:37, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image767.gif" (The medulla spinalis and its membranes)
  • 04:37, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image766.jpg" (Tentorium cerebelli seen from above.)
  • 04:37, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image766.gif" (Tentorium cerebelli seen from above.)
  • 04:36, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image765.jpg" (Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull and the brain)
  • 04:36, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image765.gif" (Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull and the brain)
  • 03:33, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image193.jpg" (Base of the skull. Upper surface)
  • 03:30, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image193.gif" (Base of the skull. Upper surface)
  • 03:30, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image190.jpg" (The skull from the front)
  • 03:29, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image190.gif" (The skull from the front)
  • 03:28, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image189.jpg" (Left infratemporal fossa)
  • 03:27, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image189.gif" (Left infratemporal fossa)
  • 03:26, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image188.jpg" (Side view of the skull)
  • 03:25, 4 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Image188.gif" (Side view of the skull. ()
  • 19:03, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "GrossAnatomyNotesNeuroscienceDrHaase.pdf" (Gross Anatomy Notes on head and neck (PDF))
  • 18:55, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "TympanicCavityDrHaase.pdf" (Tympanic cavity Diagrams (PDF))
  • 18:54, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "OrbitDrHaase.pdf" (Orbit Diagrams (PDF))
  • 18:54, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "InfratemporalRegionDrHaase.pdf" (Infratemporal region Diagrams (PDF))
  • 18:53, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "FaceAndScalpDrHaase.pdf" (Face and scalp Diagrams (PDF))
  • 18:53, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "CranialCavity2DrHaase.pdf" (Cranial Cavity Diagrams 2 (PDF))
  • 18:52, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "CranialCavity1DrHaase.pdf" (Cranial Cavity Diagrams 1 (PDF))
  • 18:49, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "SpinalPathwaysAndLimbicSystemDrChan.ppt" (Spinal pathways and limbic system presentation (PPT))
  • 18:46, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyDevelopment1DrChan.ppt" (Neuroanatomy development presentation (PPT))
  • 18:44, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "BrainStemPathwaysDrChan.ppt" (Brain stem pathways presentation (PPT))
  • 18:42, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "BasalGangliaAndThalamusDrChan.ppt" (Basal Ganglia and thalamus presentation (PPT))
  • 05:40, 3 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Somatotropic_mapping_of_spinal_cord.gif" (Somatotropic mapping of the spinal cord (GIF))
  • 18:12, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "InheritedDisordersOfHaemoblobinDrRupar.pdf" (Inherited disorders of hemoglobin lecture notes (PDF))
  • 18:11, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "OverheadsFromDrRupar.pdf" (Inherited disorders of hemoglobin overheads (PDF))
  • 15:28, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Folatepathway.png" (Folate pathway)
  • 14:55, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "DisruptiveBehaviourDisordersDrSwart.ppt" (Disruptive Behaviour Disorders lecture notes (PPT))
  • 14:49, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "EatingDisordersDrRepoHendsbee.ppt" (Eating disorders lecture notes (PPT))
  • 14:45, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "PersonalAndProfessionalDevelopmentDrJarmain.pdf" (Personal and professional development lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:42, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Classthree.ppt" (Library resources lecture notes (class 3) PPT)
  • 14:26, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "TRANSFUSIONRISKS.ppt" (Blood transfusion risks lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:25, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroBehav.pdf" (Neurobiology of behaviour lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:24, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "IntroPsych1.pdf" (Introduction to psychiatry lecture notes (PDF))
  • 14:24, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "BehaviouralMedicine2.pdf" (Behavioural Medicine lecture notes 2 (PDF))
  • 14:23, 2 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "BehaviouralMedicine1.pdf" (Behavioural Medicine lecture notes 1 (PDF))
  • 18:19, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Q3BiochemistryNotesDrFlanagan.pdf" (Quarter 3 Biochemistry Notes (PDF))
  • 00:37, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "EmbryologyDiagramsDrHaase.pdf" (Early Embryology Diagrams (PDF))
  • 00:37, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "EarlyEmbryologyDrHaase.pdf" (Early Embryology Notes (PDF))
  • 00:12, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Neural_tube_formation.png" (Embryology - Neural tube formation)
  • 00:11, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Implantation.png" (Embryology - Implantation)
  • 00:11, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Fertilization.png" (Embryology - Fertilization)
  • 00:11, 1 Mar 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cleavage.png" (Embryology - Cleavage)
  • 18:15, 28 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter3DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Notes Chapter 3 (PDF))
  • 02:12, 27 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Spinal_cord_growth.gif" (Schematic Diagram of Spinal Cord growth)
  • 02:11, 27 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Spinal_cord_growth2.gif" (Schematic Diagram of Spinal Cord growth)
  • 02:11, 27 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Reflex_pathway.gif" (Schematic Diagram of a reflex pathway)
  • 02:10, 27 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Meninges.gif" (Diagram of meninges)
  • 02:10, 27 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Ganglia.gif" (pathways taken by efferent sympathetic neurons to reach their targets)
  • 02:10, 27 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Ganglia2.gif" (pathways taken by efferent sympathetic neurons to reach their targets)
  • 21:11, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter3DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 3 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:10, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter8DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 8 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:10, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter7DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 7 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:10, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter6DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 6 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:10, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter5DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 5 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:09, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter4DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 4 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:07, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter2DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 2 Notes (pdf))
  • 21:07, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "NeuroanatomyNotesChapter1DrChan.pdf" (Neuroanatomy Chapter 1 Notes (pdf))
  • 16:38, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "EntprotozoaGroup23handout.pdf" (Enteric Protozoa Handout (PDF))
  • 16:38, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "EntprotozoaGroup23handout.doc" (Enteric Protozoa Handout (DOC))
  • 16:37, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Trematodes.pdf" (Trematodes Handout (PDF))
  • 16:37, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Trematodes.doc" (Trematodes Handout (DOC))
  • 16:36, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Microbiology_-_Group_17_-_Viral_Encephalitis.xls" (Viral Encephalitis Handout (XLS))
  • 16:35, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Nematodes_Handout.pdf" (Nematodes Handout (PDF))
  • 16:35, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Nematodes_Handout.doc" (Nematodes Handout (DOC))
  • 16:35, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Microbiology_-_Group_17_-_Viral_Encephalitis.doc" (Viral Encephalitis Handout (DOC))
  • 16:34, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Microbiology_-_Group_17_-_Viral_Encephalitis.pdf" (Viral Encephalitis Handout (PDF))
  • 16:34, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cestodes-handout.pdf" (Cestodes Handout (PDF))
  • 16:34, 26 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cestodes-handout.doc" (Cestodes Handout (DOC))
  • 16:42, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Plasmodium.doc" (Plasmodium handout (DOC))
  • 16:42, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Plasmodium.pdf" (Plasmodium handout (PDF))
  • 16:41, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Micro--Spirochaetes.doc" (Spirochaetes handout (DOC))
  • 16:41, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Micro--Spirochaetes.pdf" (Spirochaetes handout (PDF))
  • 04:09, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Yeast.pdf" (Yeast Handout (PDF))
  • 04:08, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Yeast.doc" (Yeast Handout (DOC))
  • 04:08, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "VIBRIO.pdf" (Vibrio Handout (PDF))
  • 04:08, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "VIBRIO.doc" (Vibrio Handout (DOC))
  • 04:07, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "RickettsiaHandout.pdf" (Rickettsia Handout (PDF))
  • 04:07, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "RickettsiaHandout.doc" (Rickettsia Handout (DOC))
  • 04:07, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Legionella_Handout.pdf" (Legionella Handout (PDF))
  • 04:06, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Legionella_Handout.doc" (Legionella Handout (DOC))
  • 04:04, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Herpes_Virus_outline.pdf" (Herpes Virus Handout (PDF))
  • 04:04, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Herpes_Virus_outline.doc" (Herpes Virus Handout (DOC))
  • 04:04, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Enterobacteraceae.pdf" (Enterobacteraceae Handout (PDF))
  • 04:03, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Enterobacteraceae.doc" (Enterobacteraceae Handout (DOC))
  • 04:03, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "DiMorphic_fungi.pdf" (Dimorphic Fungi Handout (PDF))
  • 04:03, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "DiMorphic_fungi.doc" (Dimorphic Fungi Handout (DOC))
  • 04:01, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Blood_and_Tissue_Protozoa-handout.pdf" (Blood and tissue protozoa Handout (PDF))
  • 04:01, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Blood_and_Tissue_Protozoa-handout.doc" (Blood and tissue protozoa Handout (DOC))
  • 04:01, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Anaerobe.pdf" (Anaerobe Handout (PDF))
  • 04:00, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Anaerobe.doc" (Anaerobe Handout (DOC))
  • 00:25, 24 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Ourgroup.ppt"
  • 05:48, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Aerobic_gram.doc" (Aerobic Gram Positive Rods (DOC))
  • 05:48, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Aerobic_gram.pdf" (Aerobic Gram Positive Rods (PDF))
  • 05:47, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Aerobic_gram.ppt" (Aerobic Gram Positive Rods (PPT))
  • 04:37, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Ourgroup.ppt" (Entire Nocardia Presentation (ppt))
  • 04:37, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Nocarida.ppt" (Nocardia Risk factors Contribution (ppt))
  • 04:36, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Actinomycosis.ppt" (Actinomycosis Contribution (ppt))
  • 04:36, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Nocardiosis.ppt" (Nocardiosis Contribution (ppt))
  • 04:09, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Hemophilus.doc" (Haemophilus handout (DOC))
  • 04:09, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Hemophilus.pdf" (Haemophilus handout (PDF))
  • 03:59, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Campylobacter_AND_Helicobacter.pdf" (Campylobacter and Helicobacter handout (PDF))
  • 03:10, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Micro_-_chlamydia.pdf" (Chlamydia Handout (PDF))
  • 03:09, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Micro_-_chlamydia.doc" (Chlamydia Handout (DOC))
  • 03:05, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Neisseria.pdf" (Neisseria Handout (PDF))
  • 03:05, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Neisseria.doc" (Neisseria Handout (DOC))
  • 03:04, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Mycoplasma.pdf" (Mycoplasma Handout (PDF))
  • 03:03, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Mycoplasma.doc" (Mycoplasma Handout (DOC))
  • 03:00, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Streptococci_Handout.doc" (Streptococcus Handout (DOC))
  • 03:00, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Streptococci_Handout.pdf" (Streptococcus Handout (PDF))
  • 02:58, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Staphylococcus.doc" (Staphlycoccus Handout (DOC))
  • 02:57, 23 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Staphylococcus.pdf" (Staphlycoccus Handout (PDF))
  • 02:12, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "10_-_25_Sept_2003_-_MuscleContractionDrSim.ppt" (Physiology - Muscle Contraction (PPT))
  • 02:10, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "10_-_25_Sept_2003_-_MuscleContractionDrSim.pdf" (Physiology - Muscle Contraction (PDF))
  • 02:09, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "09_-_22_Sept_2003_-_NeuromuscularTransmissionDrSim.ppt" (Physiology - Neuromuscular Transmission (PPT))
  • 02:08, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "08_-_18_Sept_2003_-_PropagationDrSim.ppt" (Physiology - Propagation)
  • 02:06, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "08_-_18_Sept_2003_-_PropagationDrSim.pdf" (Physiology - Propagation)
  • 02:05, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "06_-_11_Sept_2003_-_MembranePotentialDrSim.ppt" (Physiology - Membrane Potential)
  • 02:02, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "06_-_11_Sept_2003_-_MembranePotentialDrSim.pdf" (Physiology - Membrane Potential PDF)
  • 02:01, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "05_-_08_Sept_2003_-_WaterAndElectrolyteBalanceDrSims.ppt" (Water And Electrolyte Balance PPT)
  • 01:58, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "05_-_08_Sept_2003_-_WaterAndElectrolyteBalanceDrSims.pdf" (Physiology - Water And Electrolyte Balance - PDF)
  • 01:55, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "04_-_04_Sept_2003_-_HomeostasisDrSim.ppt" (Physiology - Homeostasis - PPT)
  • 01:54, 22 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "04_-_04_Sept_2003_-_HomeostasisDrSim.pdf" (Physiology - Homeostasis - PDF)
  • 23:11, 21 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "AutisticDisorderDiagnosisAndTreatmentDrNicolson.ppt" (Autistic Disorder Diagnosis And Treatment (PPT))
  • 23:03, 21 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "CommunicationDisordersHandoutDrWarrLeeper.pdf" (Communication Disorders Handout (Dr Leeper))
  • 22:46, 21 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "CommunicationDisordersDrWarrLeeper.ppt" (Communication Disorders in Children)
  • 22:45, 21 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "CommunicationDisordersAdultsDrOrange.ppt" (Communication Disorders in Adults)
  • 03:11, 19 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Chlamydia_psittaci_PRESENTATION.ppt"
  • 03:10, 19 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Chlamydia_psittaci_PRESENTATION.ppt"
  • 19:20, 18 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "HIV_armies.pdf" (HIV Army recommendations)
  • 18:45, 18 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Chlamydia_psittaci_PRESENTATION.ppt" (Presentation for parrot fever)
  • 15:43, 18 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "The_Changing_Face_of_AIDS.ppt" (The Chaning Face of AIDS by Dr. Thompson)
  • 03:45, 13 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Iron_homeostasis.gif" (Iron Homeostasis)
  • 03:45, 13 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Tn-iron_homeostasis.gif" (Iron Homeostasis thumbnail)
  • 20:53, 12 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Basic_circuit.xcf" (Basic cerebellar circuit (xcf))
  • 20:52, 12 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Basic_circuit.png" (Basic cerebellar circuit)
  • 20:50, 12 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Tn-basic_circuit.png" (Physiology Basic circuit)
  • 03:56, 11 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "TheBasicAudiologicEvaluationNicoleLanthier.ppt" (The Basic Audiologic Evaluation Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:32, 11 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "AutonomicNervousSystemDrSequeira.ppt" (Autonomic Nervous System Lecture (PPT))
  • 03:12, 11 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "09_-_M9CerBGProb.swf" (Problems for the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Physiology lecture (SWF))
  • 03:07, 11 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "09_-_M9CerBGProb.swf" (Problems for the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Physiology lecture (SWF))
  • 03:05, 11 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "09_-_M9CerBG.pdf" (Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Physiology lecture (PDF))
  • 03:03, 11 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "09_-_Cerebellum_&_Basal_Ganglia_m9cerbg.swf" (Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Physiology lecture (SWF))
  • 01:58, 9 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "ChildAbuseAndNeglectDrWarren.ppt" (Child abuse and neglect powerpoint)
  • 22:55, 8 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "08_-_M8Motor.pdf" (Physiology of the Motor Cortex Lecture (PDF))
  • 22:54, 8 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "08_-_M8MotorProb.swf" (Problems for Physiology of the Motor Cortex Lecture (SWF))
  • 22:53, 8 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "08_-_Motor_Cortex_m8motor.swf" (Physiology of the Motor Cortex Lecture (SWF))
  • 22:34, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "07_-_M7MuscleProb.swf" (Problems for Spinal reflexes and muscles Lecture)
  • 22:32, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "07_-_M7Muscle.pdf" (Spinal reflexes and muscles Lecture (PDF))
  • 22:32, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "07_-_M7Muscle.pdf" (Problems for Spinal reflexes and muscles Lecture)
  • 22:30, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "07_-_Spinal_Reflexes_and_Muscles_M7Muscle.swf" (Spinal reflexes and muscles Lecture (SWF))
  • 04:27, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Dorsal_column_lemniscal_system.png" (Dorsal Column Lemniscal System Full size)
  • 04:27, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Dorsal_column_lemniscal_system-thumb.png" (Dorsal Column Lemniscal System THUMB)
  • 01:53, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "06_-_M6Touch.pdf" (Physiology of General Somatic Sensation PDF)
  • 01:51, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "06_-_M6TouchProb.swf" (Physiology of General Somatic Sensation)
  • 01:49, 6 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "06_-_Touch_m6touch.swf" (Physiology of General Somatic Sensation Notes)
  • 19:30, 4 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Cowarticle0001.pdf" (Sibling Collusion and Problem Behavior in Early Adolescence: Toward a Process Model for Family Mutuality)
  • 22:57, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "05_-_M5VesProb.swf" (Practice Problems for Vestibular System and Eye Movements lecture)
  • 22:52, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "05_-_Vestibular_System_and_Eye_Movements_m5vest.swf"
  • 20:24, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit8.gif"
  • 20:23, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit7.gif"
  • 20:23, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit6.gif"
  • 20:23, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit5.gif"
  • 20:23, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit4.gif"
  • 20:22, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit3.gif"
  • 20:22, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit2.gif"
  • 20:22, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Orbit1.gif"
  • 20:17, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "Dissection_instructions_-_posterior_and_superior_mediastinum_html_2e1edf25.gif"
  • 00:34, 2 Feb 2004 Tarek uploaded "03_-_Association_Cortex_m3assmem.swf" (Vilis Association Cortex lecture)