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Estrogens are hormones produced by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle and by the Leydig cells of the testis as well as the adrenal cortex.

In pregnant women, estrogen is produced by the placenta, and is responsible for its growth.


Estrogen antagonists are really partial agonists. Examples are Tamoxifen, Raloxiphene and Clomiphene.

Raloxiphene (see fig.) is similar to tamoxifen but is associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer. Some women may be resistant and use of an aromatase inhibitor (e.g. Anastrozol) may be indicated. 6 Clomiphene - used to stimulate ovulation. Mechanism involves decreased feedback inhibition on GnRH release? Multiple ovulation can occur. PROGESTINS