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Endometrioid tumours are part of the surface epithelial-stromal tumour group of ovarian carcinomas (10-20% are of endometrioid type). Benign and borderline variants are rare. There is an association with endometriosis and concurrent primary endometrial carcinoma.
On gross examination, the tumour is cystic and may be solid and some arise in cystic endometriosis. Bilaterality is present in 17% of cases. Microscopically, there is a resemblance to carcinoma of the endometrium and over a third have focal squamous differentiation.