- Biphasic lifestyle is unique to Chlamydia
- elementary bodies (infectious) infect hosts first
- become reticulate bodies (non-infectious)
- produce large inclusions in host cells and produce/release more elementary bodies
- the large inclusions in host cells are useful (with specific strains) for light microscope diagnosis
- energy parasites (deplete ATP stores)
- Chlamydia and gonorrhea can both cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- Chlamydia is called the "silent tubal epidemic"
- Usually, the cervix and uterus are protected by inflammatory responses and acids.
- These responses are neutralised by semen, however, and it is theorized that Chlamydia and Gonorrhea ride the sperm up the fallopian tubes and can cause endocervicitis
- Basically cannot be cultured due to its intracellular action
- A, B, C
- cause trichoma
- occurs in pre-industrial countries.
- trichomas are fibrosis in the eyelid itself, leading to the number one infective cause of blindness.
- D to K
- cause sexually transmitted disease
- usually mild
- found in developed countries
- L1, L2, L3
- babies get infected due to direct exposure of their eyes when they pass through the birth canal
- adults are infected through direct contact with the eye
- males are also usually asymptomatic
- Infection is asymptomatic otherwise, so people don't know they are infertile
- genital infectons in males - Groove sign very important
- indication of lymphadenopathy in inguinal canal
- also observe necrotic tissue and extensive ulceration
- Also see Chlamydia psittaci for more information
- Birds + pneumonia - warning bells!
- Headache symptom very important
- for blood culture, must request special culture since bacteria is an obligate intracellular organism and need to grow in host cells
- usually grown in virology labs
- Routine cultures usually don't show chlamydia!
- causes acute RTIs and 10% of community acquired pneumonia