Cardiac valve abnormalities

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Valve abnormalities and heart murmurs

What are the effects of valvular stenosis on cardiac pressures and volumes?

  • Increased resistance to flow
  • larger pressure at valve; normal pressure distal to valve
  • volumes unaltered

What are the effects of valvular insufficiency (regurgitation) on cardiac pressures and volumes?

  • Chamber before valve receives regular blood flow and regurgitant flow
  • increased volume / pressures

Predict the phase of the cardiac cycle during which a heart murmur due to a particular cardiac valve abnormality could be heard

  • diastolic murmurs - always pathological
  • systolic murmurs - may be innocent or pathological