Pathology/Venous imaging

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  • Superficial femoral vein is a deep vein
  • Venograph is the gold standard, but doppler ultrasound is what is used.
  • Above-knee is more useful than below knee imaging, since below-knee occlusions are not usually treated
  • Fibrinogen scanning is less useful because it is most sensitive/specific below knee
  • Westermarks sign (Westermark described focal oligaemia distal to the occluded vessel)
  • Hamptons hump (When focal consolidation occurs in the costophrenic angle, this is deemed a Hampton's hump.)
  • For PE, the gold standard is pulmonary angiography