Adulthood, Old Age, Death and Dying

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Understand the physiological and psychosocial challenges that we face as we grow older, and undergo role changes; e.g. menarche, pregnancy, menopause, andropause, retirement, death and dying


  • less resilience to physical stressors, etc.
  • highly contingent on past history, genetics, external environment
  • bone demineralization
  • increased hearing loss and vision impairment


  • elderly may seek more emotionally gratifying interactions instead of material results

Be able to identify how these changes impact on risk for developing different disorders

  • Multiple losses of close support structure could affect psychological wellbeing
  • Physical deterioration (e.g., bone density loss, decreased immunity) increases risk for physical problems
  • Prone to depression, especially as sequelae of other medical problems (such as stroke)

Explain the concepts of hardiness and resilience, and how these impact on an individual's life course

Beats the hell out of me, dude..