During her reproductive years, the reproductive female can have abnormal genital tract bleeding.
The four root causes of bleeding are a genital tract lesion, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, a gastrointestinal tract or urinary tract lesion, or a systemic disorder.
Upper genital tract lesions can occur in the fallopian tube as a result of ectopic pregnancy; in the myometrium as a result of a leiomyoma or adenomyosis; or in the endometrium as a result of inflammation, pelvic inflammatory disease, hyperplasia, neoplasia, a polyp, pregnancy, or an IUD.
Lower genital tract lesions can occur in the vagina (trauma, neoplasia, or infection), exocervix (neoplasia, polyps, inflammation, infection, trauma), or vulva (trauma, infection or neoplasia).
Gastrointestinal tract lesions can result from caruncle, stone, neoplasm, inflammation or infection.
Urinary tract lesions can result from neoplasm, fissure, inflammation, or hemorrhoids.
Systemic disorders can affect coagulation or ovulatory function, thereby also resulting in abnormal bleeding.